25,310 research outputs found

    Exploiting the Design Freedom of RM

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    This paper details how Rapid Manufacturing (RM) can overcome the restrictions imposed by the inherent process limitations of conventional manufacturing techniques and become the enabling technology in fabricating optimal products. A new design methodology capable of exploiting RM’s increased design freedom is therefore needed. Inspired by natural world structures of trees and bones, a multi-objective, genetic algorithm based topology optimisation approach is presented. This combines multiple unit cell structures and varying volume fractions to create a heterogeneous part structure which exhibits a uniform stress distribution.Mechanical Engineerin

    Inside Money, Procyclical Leverage, and Banking Catastrophes

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    We explore a model of the interaction between banks and outside investors in which the ability of banks to issue inside money (short-term liabilities believed to be convertible into currency at par) can generate a collapse in asset prices and widespread bank insolvency. The banks and investors share a common belief about the future value of certain long-term assets, but they have different objective functions; changes to this common belief result in portfolio adjustments and trade. Positive belief shocks induce banks to buy risky assets from investors, and the banks finance those purchases by issuing new short-term liabilities. Negative belief shocks induce banks to sell assets in order to reduce their chance of insolvency to a tolerably low level, and they supply more assets at lower prices, which can result in multiple market-clearing prices. A sufficiently severe negative shock causes the set of equilibrium prices to contract (in a manner given by a cusp catastrophe), causing prices to plummet discontinuously and banks to become insolvent. Successive positive and negative shocks of equal magnitude do not cancel; rather, a banking catastrophe can occur even if beliefs simply return to their initial state. Capital requirements can prevent crises by curtailing the expansion of balance sheets when beliefs become more optimistic, but they can also force larger price declines. Emergency asset price supports can be understood as attempts by a central bank to coordinate expectations on an equilibrium with solvency.Comment: 31 pages, 10 figure

    Dynamics of opinion formation in a small-world network

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    The dynamical process of opinion formation within a model using a local majority opinion updating rule is studied numerically in networks with the small-world geometrical property. The network is one in which shortcuts are added to randomly chosen pairs of nodes in an underlying regular lattice. The presence of a small number of shortcuts is found to shorten the time to reach a consensus significantly. The effects of having shortcuts in a lattice of fixed spatial dimension are shown to be analogous to that of increasing the spatial dimension in regular lattices. The shortening of the consensus time is shown to be related to the shortening of the mean shortest path as shortcuts are added. Results can also be translated into that of the dynamics of a spin system in a small-world network.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figure

    Synchronization is optimal in non-diagonalizable networks

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    We consider the problem of maximizing the synchronizability of oscillator networks by assigning weights and directions to the links of a given interaction topology. We first extend the well-known master stability formalism to the case of non-diagonalizable networks. We then show that, unless some oscillator is connected to all the others, networks of maximum synchronizability are necessarily non-diagonalizable and can always be obtained by imposing unidirectional information flow with normalized input strengths. The extension makes the formalism applicable to all possible network structures, while the maximization results provide insights into hierarchical structures observed in complex networks in which synchronization plays a significant role.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure; minor revisio

    Are Big Gods a big deal in the emergence of big groups?

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    In Big Gods, Norenzayan (2013) presents the most comprehensive treatment yet of the Big Gods question. The book is a commendable attempt to synthesize the rapidly growing body of survey and experimental research on prosocial effects of religious primes together with cross-cultural data on the distribution of Big Gods. There are, however, a number of problems with the current cross-cultural evidence that weaken support for a causal link between big societies and certain types of Big Gods. Here we attempt to clarify these problems and, in so doing, correct any potential misinterpretation of the cross-cultural findings, provide new insight into the processes generating the patterns observed, and flag directions for future research

    Detection of K+ mesons in segmented electromagnetic calorimeters

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    The combination of the CrystalBall and TAPS electromagnetic calorimeters were installed in the MAMI A2 hall in 2003. Here they are able to detect the reaction products from photo-induced reactions in combination with the Glasgow photon tagger. In the last two years the MAMI facility was upgraded from 885 MeV to 1.5 GeV, the A2 photon tagger underwent a similar upgrade crossing the threshold for strangeness photoproduction. For the CrystalBall this created a new challenge, to identify K+ mesons above the large background from other charged hadrons, in a situation where the detector setup does not benefit from a magnetic field to help separate particle species. These proceedings outline a novel technique which uses the decay products of the K+ as a strangeness tag

    Geographical Coarsegraining of Complex Networks

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    We perform the renormalization-group-like numerical analysis of geographically embedded complex networks on the two-dimensional square lattice. At each step of coarsegraining procedure, the four vertices on each 2×22 \times 2 square box are merged to a single vertex, resulting in the coarsegrained system of the smaller sizes. Repetition of the process leads to the observation that the coarsegraining procedure does not alter the qualitative characteristics of the original scale-free network, which opens the possibility of subtracting a smaller network from the original network without destroying the important structural properties. The implication of the result is also suggested in the context of the recent study of the human brain functional network.Comment: To appear in Phys. Rev. Let

    Small World Graphs by the iterated "My Friends are Your Friends'' Principle

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    We study graphs obtained by successive creation and destruction of edges into small neighborhoods of the vertices. Starting with a circle graph of large diameter we obtain small world graphs with logarithmic diameter, high clustering coefficients and a fat tail distribution for the degree. Only local edge formation processes are involved and no preferential attachment was used. Furthermore we found an interesting phase transition with respect to the initial conditions.Comment: Latex, 12 pages with 10 figure
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