6,789 research outputs found

    Controlled Random Walks

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    Elemental Abundance Ratios in Stars of the Outer Galactic Disk. II. Field Red Giants

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    We summarize a selection process to identify red giants in the direction of the southern warp of the Galactic disk, employing VI_C photometry and multi-object spectroscopy. We also present results from follow-up high-resolution, high-S/N echelle spectroscopy of three field red giants, finding [Fe/H] values of about -0.5. The field stars, with Galactocentric distances estimated at 10 to 15 kpc, support the conclusion of Yong, Carney, & de Almeida (2005) that the Galactic metallicity gradient disappears beyond R_GC values of 10 to 12 kpc for the older stars and clusters of the outer disk. The field and cluster stars at such large distances show very similar abundance patterns, and, in particular, all show enhancements of the "alpha" elements O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti and the r-process element Eu. These results suggest that Type II supernovae have been significant contributors to star formation in the outer disk relative to Type Ia supernovae within the past few Gyrs. We also compare our results with those available for much younger objects. The limited results for the H II regions and B stars in the outer disk also suggest that the radial metallicity gradient in the outer disk is shallow or absent. The much more extensive results for Cepheids confirm these trends, and that the change in slope of the metallicity gradient may occur at a larger Galactocentric distance than for the older stars and clusters. However, the younger stars also show rising alpha element enhancements with increasing R_GC, at least beyond 12 kpc. These trends are consistent with the idea of a progressive growth in the size of the Galactic disk with time, and episodic enrichment by Type II supernovae as part of the disk's growth. [Abridged]Comment: Accepted for publication in A

    Abundances and Kinematics of Field Halo and Disk Stars I: Observational Data and Abundance Analysis

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    We describe observations and abundance analysis of a high-resolution, high-S/N survey of 168 stars, most of which are metal-poor dwarfs. We follow a self-consistent LTE analysis technique to determine the stellar parameters and abundances, and estimate the effects of random and systematic uncertainties on the resulting abundances. Element-to-iron ratios are derived for key alpha, odd, Fe-peak, r- and s-process elements. Effects of Non-LTE on the analysis of Fe I lines are shown to be very small on the average. Spectroscopically determined surface gravities are derived that are generally close to those obtained from Hipparcos parallaxes.Comment: 41 pages, 7 Postscript figures. Accepted for publication in the A

    Abundances of Baade's Window Giants from Keck/HIRES Spectra: I. Stellar Parameters and [Fe/H] Values

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    We present the first results of a new abundance survey of the Milky Way bulge based on Keck/HIRES spectra of 27 K-giants in the Baade's Window (l=1l = 1, b=4b = -4) field. The spectral data used in this study are of much higher resolution and signal-to-noise than previous optical studies of Galactic bulge stars. The [Fe/H] values of our stars, which range between -1.29 and +0.51+0.51, were used to recalibrate large low resolution surveys of bulge stars. Our best value for the mean [Fe/H] of the bulge is 0.10±0.04-0.10 \pm 0.04. This mean value is similar to the mean metallicity of the local disk and indicates that there cannot be a strong metallicity gradient inside the solar circle. The metallicity distribution of stars confirms that the bulge does not suffer from the so-called ``G-dwarf'' problem. This paper also details the new abundance techniques necessary to analyze very metal-rich K-giants, including a new Fe line list and regions of low blanketing for continuum identification.Comment: Accepted for publication in January 2006 Astrophysical Journal. Long tables 3--6 withheld to save space (electronic tables in journal paper). 53 pages, 10 figures, 9 table

    Shifts in shuttle SRM performance because of ammonium perchlorate crystal shape on missions 51-I/J and 61-A/B

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    The design of the Space Shuttle vehicle configuration requires that the SRMs produce thrust within tightly-controlled limits. These limits provide assurance that Shuttle ascent performance goals will be achieved within the vehicle flight load constraints. The SRM's will perform within these limits if overall SRM reproducibility is maintained. This report will initially describe the excellent performance reproducibility of the 24 SRMs during the first 12 flights STS-8 through STS-26 (Mission 51-F) using the HPM SRM. Secondly, this report will describe the transient phenomena which interrupted the reproducibility in the first 20 sec of flight for four flights (Missions 51-I/J and 61-A/B). The cause of this 20 sec phenomena is postulated to be a change in the crystal shape of the ammonium perchlorate used in the propellant. This shape change coincided with the performance shift on these four flights. The ballistic effect of the crystal shape change is manifested as a change to the generic HUMP or BARF curve of the Shuttle SRM thrust/pressure-time curve. As the crystal shape change was corrected by the vendor, the performance produced by the Shuttle SRM returned to normal

    Cooler and bigger than thought? Planetary host stellar parameters from the InfraRed Flux Method

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    Effective temperatures and radii for 92 planet-hosting stars as determined from the InfraRed Flux Method (IRFM) are presented and compared with those given by other authors using different approaches. The IRFM temperatures we have derived are systematically lower than those determined from the spectroscopic condition of excitation equilibrium, the mean difference being as large as 110 K. They are, however, consistent with previous IRFM studies and with the colors derived from Kurucz and MARCS model atmospheres. Comparison with direct measurements of stellar diameters for 7 dwarf stars, which approximately cover the range of temperatures of the planet-hosting stars, suggest that the IRFM radii and temperatures are reliable in an absolute scale. A better understanding of the fundamental properties of the stars with planets will be achieved once this discrepancy between the IRFM and the spectroscopic temperature scales is resolved.Comment: 15 pages, 4 figures. Accepted for publication in Ap

    Oxygen Abundances in Two Metal-Poor Subgiants from the Analysis of the 6300 A Forbidden O I Line

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    Recent LTE analyses (Israelian et al. 1998 and Bosegaard et al. 1999) of the OH bands in the optical-ultraviolet spectra of nearby metal-poor subdwarfs indicate that oxygen abundances are generally higher than those previously determined. The difference increases with decreasing metallicity and reaches delta([O/Fe]) ~ +0.6 dex as [Fe/H] approaches -3.0. Employing high resolution (R = 50000), high S/N (~ 250) echelle spectra of the two stars found by Israelian et al. (1998) to have the highest [O/Fe]-ratios, viz, BD +23 3130 and BD +37 1458, we conducted abundance analyses based on about 60 Fe I and 7-9 Fe II lines. We determined from Kurucz LTE models the values of the stellar parameters, as well as abundances of Na, Ni, and the traditional alpha-elements, independent of the calibration of color vs TeffT_{eff} scales. We determined oxygen abundances from spectral synthesis of the stronger line (6300 A) of the [O I] doublet. The syntheses of the [O I] line lead to smaller values of [O/Fe], consistent with those found earlier among halo field and globular cluster giants. We obtain [O/Fe] = +0.35 +/- 0.2 for BD +23 3130 and +0.50 +/- 0.2 for BD +37 1458. In the former, the [O I] line is very weak (~ 1 mA), so that the quoted [O/Fe] value may in reality be an upper limit. Therefore in these two stars a discrepancy exists between the [O/Fe]- ratios derived from [O I] and the OH feature, and the origin of this difference remains unclear. Until the matter is clarified, we suggest it is premature to conclude that the ab initio oxygen abundances of old, metal-poor stars need to be revised drastically upward.Comment: 38 pages, 5 tables, 14 figures To appear in July 1999 AJ Updated April 16, 1999. Fixed typo

    Taking the Punishment Out of the Process: From Substantive Criminal Justice Through Procedural Justice to Restorative Justice

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    If the punishment is taken out of the process, and the processes of criminal justice become effective at restoration--and if rigorous empirical research might show that a restorative process costs less money and produces greater public safety--that would be a result everyone would embrace
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