181 research outputs found

    Empirical Study of Intraday Option Price Changes using extended Count Regression Models

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    In this paper we model absolute price changes of an option on the XETRA DAX index based on quote-by-quote data from the EUREX exchange. In contrast to other authors, we focus on a parameter-driven model for this purpose and use a Poisson Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with a latent AR(1) process in the mean, which accounts for autocorrelation and overdispersion in the data. Parameter estimation is carried out by Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods using the WinBUGS software. In a Bayesian context, we prove the superiority of this modelling approach compared to an ordinary Poisson-GLM and to a complex Poisson-GLM with heterogeneous variance structure (but without taking into account any autocorrelations) by using the deviance information criterion (DIC) as proposed by Spiegelhalter et al. (2002). We include a broad range of explanatory variables into our regression modelling for which we also consider interaction effects: While, according to our modelling results, the price development of the underlying, the intrinsic value of the option at the time of the trade, the number of new quotations between two price changes, the time between two price changes and the Bid-Ask spread have significant effects on the size of the price changes, this is not the case for the remaining time to maturity of the option. By giving possible interpretations of our modelling results we also provide an empirical contribution to the understanding of the microstructure of option markets

    A fractionally integrated ECOGARCH process

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    In this paper we introduce a fractionally integrated exponential continuous time GARCH(p,d,q) process. It is defined in such a way that it is a continuous time extension of the discrete time FIEGARCH(p,d,q) process. We investigate stationarity and moment properties of the new model. It is also shown that the long memory effect introduced in the log-volatility propagates to the volatility process

    Introducing and evaluating a Gibbs sampler for spatial Poisson regression models

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    In this paper we present a Gibbs sampler for a Poisson model including spatial effects. Frühwirth-Schnatter und Wagner (2004b) show that by data augmentation via the introduction of two sequences of latent variables a Poisson regression model can be transformed into a normal linear model. We show how this methodology can be extended to spatial Poisson regression models and give details of the resulting Gibbs sampler. In particular, the influence of model parameterisation and different update strategies on the mixing of the MCMC chains are discussed. The developed Gibbs samplers are analysed in two simulation studies and appliedto model the expected number of claims for policyholders of a German car insurance data set. In general, both large and small simulated spatial effects are estimated accurately by the Gibbs samplers and reasonable low autocorrelations are obtained when the data variability is rather large. However, for data with very low heterogeneity, the autocorrelations resulting from the Gibbs samplers are very high, withdrawing the computational advantage over a Metropolis Hastings independence sampler which exhibits very low autocorrelations in all settings

    Spatial modelling of claim frequency and claim size in insurance

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    In this paper models for claim frequency and claim size in non-life insurance are considered. Both covariates and spatial random e ects are included allowing the modelling of a spatial dependency pattern. We assume a Poisson model for the number of claims, while claim size is modelled using a Gamma distribution. However, in contrast to the usual compound Poisson model going back to Lundberg (1903), we allow for dependencies between claim size and claim frequency. Both models for the individual and average claim sizes of a policyholder are considered. A fully Bayesian approach is followed, parameters are estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The issue of model comparison is thoroughly addressed. Besides the deviance information criterion suggested by Spiegelhalter et al. (2002), the predictive model choice criterion (Gelfand and Ghosh (1998)) and proper scoring rules (Gneiting and Raftery (2005)) based on the posterior predictive distribution are investigated. We give an application to a comprehensive data set from a German car insurance company. The inclusion of spatial e ects significantly improves the models for both claim frequency and claim size and also leads to more accurate predictions of the total claim sizes. Further we quantify the significant number of claims e ects on claim size

    Modeling Transport Mode Decisions Using Hierarchical Binary Spatial Regression Models with Cluster Effects

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    This work is motivated by a mobility study conducted in the city of Munich, Germany. The variable of interest is a binary response, which indicates whether public transport has been utilized or not. One of the central questions is to identify areas of low/high utilization of public transport after adjusting for explanatory factors such as trip, individual and household attributes. The goal is to develop flexible statistical models for a binary response with covariate, spatial and cluster effects. One approach for modeling spatial effects are Markov Random Fields (MRF). A modification of a class of MRF models with proper joint distributions introduced by Pettitt et al. (2002) is developed. This modification has the desirable property to contain the intrinsic MRF in the limit and still allows for efficient spatial parameter updates in Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms. In addition to spatial effects, cluster effects are taken into consideration. Group and individual approaches for modeling these effects are suggested. The first one models heterogeneity between clusters, while the second one models heterogeneity within clusters. A naive approach to include individual cluster effects results in an unidentifiable model. It is shown how an appropriate reparametrization gives identifiable parameters. This provides a new approach for modeling heterogeneity within clusters. For hierarchical spatial binary regression models with individual cluster effects two MCMC algorithms for parameter estimation are developed. The first one is based on a direct evaluation of the likelihood. The second one is based on the representation of binary responses with Gaussian latent variables through a threshold mechanism, which is particularly useful for probit models. Simulation results show a satisfactory behavior of the MCMC algorithms developed. Finally the proposed model classes are applied to the mobility study and results are interpreted

    Mixed effect model for absolute log returns of ultra high frequency data

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    The influence of covariates on absolute log returns of ultra high frequency data is analysed. Therefore we construct a mixed effect model for the absolute log returns. The parameters are estimated in a state space approach. To analyse the correlation in these irregularly spaced data empirically, the variogram, known mainly from spatial statistics, will be used. In a small simulation study the performance of the estimators will be analysed. In the end we apply the model to IBM trade data and analyse the influence of the covariates