12,073 research outputs found

    Economic analysis of the implementation of autologous transfusion technologies throughout England

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    Objectives: This study aims to provide the first estimates of the costs and effects of the large scale introduction of autologous transfusion technologies into the United Kingdom National Health Service. Methods: A model was constructed to allow disparate data sources to be combined to produce estimates of the scale, costs, and effects of introducing four interventions. The interventions considered were preparing patients for surgery (PPS) clinics, preoperative autologous donation (PAD), intraoperative cell salvage (ICS), and postoperative cell salvage (PoCS). Results: The key determinants of cost per operation are the anticipated level of reductions in blood use, the mean level of blood use, mean length of stay, and the cost of the technology. The results show the potential for considerable reductions in blood use. The greatest reductions are anticipated to be through the use of PPS and ICS. Vascular surgery, transplant surgery, and cardiothoracic surgery appear to be the specialties that will benefit most from the technologies. Conclusions: Several simplifications were used in the production of these estimates; consequently, caution should be used in their interpretation and use. Despite the drawbacks in the methods used in the study, the model shows the scale of the issue, the importance of gathering better data, and the form that data must take. Such preliminary modeling exercises are essential for rational policy development and to direct future research and discussion among stakeholders

    Infectious bronchitis virus infections of chickens in Belgium : an epidemiological survey

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    Between April 2012 and July 2015, cloacal and/or tracheal swab samples were collected from four hundred and twenty-four Belgian chicken broiler, breeder and layer flocks. All flocks were kept for production purposes and presented clinical signs suggestive of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection. The samples were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to detect the presence of ribonucleic acid (RNA) of IBV. When positive, approximately four hundred base pairs (bp) encoding for the hypervariable region of the IBV S1 protein were sequenced. Sequencing results, cycle threshold (Ct) values and vaccination history were used as criteria to try and distinguish vaccine strains from field strains. Of all samples examined, 22.4% was negative. In 16.4% of the samples that did contain RNA from IBV, the genotype could not be determined. In most cases, this was due to the recovery of RNA quantities below the lower limit of detection of the sequencing PCR. The remaining positive submissions predominantly revealed RNA from IBV strains that belonged to the 4/91-793B (46.8%), D388-QX (25.2%), D274-D207 (5.8%) and Massachusetts (4.0%) genotypes. Estimations indicated that approximately 58%, 11%, 37% and 46% of these detections, respectively, were vaccine strains. Infections with types CK/CH/Guandong/Xindadi/0903, Ukr/27/2011, NGA/295/2006 and Q1 were observed sporadically. The results indicate that IBV infections are highly prevalent in Belgian chickens and that at least eight different IBV types were circulating during the monitored period. This underlines the necessity of providing flocks with a strong and broad protective immunity against IBV

    Tablet computers in assessing performance in a high stakes exam : opinion matters

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    The authors would like to thank Dr Craig brown, University of Aberdeen for assistance with data analysis.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    An archival case study : revisiting the life and political economy of Lauchlin Currie

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    This paper forms part of a wider project to show the significance of archival material on distinguished economists, in this case Lauchlin Currie (1902-93), who studied and taught at Harvard before entering government service at the US Treasury and Federal Reserve Board as the intellectual leader of Roosevelt's New Deal, 1934-39, as FDR's White House economic adviser in peace and war, 1939-45, and as a post-war development economist. It discusses the uses made of the written and oral material available when the author was writing his intellectual biography of Currie (Duke University Press 1990) while Currie was still alive, and the significance of the material that has come to light after Currie's death

    The Nearshore Fish Fauna of Bonne Bay, a Fjord within Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland

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    A standardized survey of the nearshore fish fauna of Bonne Bay, a fjord within Gros Morne National Park in western Newfoundland, was conducted using beach seines, gill-nets and bottom trawls during the month of June over a seven year period (2002- 2008). The survey documents the presence of 31 fish species (in 17 taxonomic families). Sampling sites varied in benthic habitat and associated fish assemblages. Both juvenile and adult life history stages of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were present in Bonne Bay, suggesting the presence of a local population or “bay cod stock”. Acadian redfish (Sebastes fasciatus) live in the bay, and may be members of a genetically differentiable population of redfish. Striped wolfish (Anarhichas lupus), a fish species protected under Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA), inhabits Bonne Bay. Surrounded by Gros Morne National Park, this bay with a diverse fish fauna is a focus of local stewardship and conservation efforts

    Forest floor leachate biogeochemistry and decomposition dynamics

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    Forest floor biogeochemistry was studied in combined field and modeling research in ecosystems representative of forests of the Northeastern U.S. The field study, conducted at the Harvard Forest, MA, focused on changes to organic and inorganic chemistry of forest-floor leachate under experimentally elevated N inputs meant to simulate effects of acid deposition in the region. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC and DON) increased substantially in N treatments in the first year of the study. I attributed this to an increase in production of soluble organics in the forest floor due to an interaction between increased N availability and lysimeter-installation disturbance. In the second year of the study, DOC and DON appeared unaffected by N amendments in a red pine stand that is exhibiting symptoms of N saturation. Concentrations of soluble organic C and N decreased with N amendment in a northern hardwood stand which is retaining all of the added N. I attributed this effect to a decrease in the solubility of humic substances. Both stands exhibited pH decreases attendant with preferential retention of NH\sb4\sp{+} over NO\sb3\sp{-} in the O horizon. Base cations in the O horizon appeared to buffer solution pH changes better in the pine stand than in the hardwood stand. Site-level data from previous studies were used to construct a process model of forest-floor decomposition and N dynamics. After validation through blind predictions, the model was used to simulate forest-floor mass and N capital during recovery from clear-cutting in northern hardwood forests. The model was also applied in 10-ha patches across a heterogeneous landscape to predict patterns of forest floor mass and N capital in the White Mountain National Forest

    Virtual Counseling for Students Enrolled in Online Educational Programs

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    Virtual schools are increasing in popularity as a method of providing formal education for a growing number of students in the United States

    Absorption heat recovery

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    The Evolution of Protoplanetary Disks Around Millisecond Pulsars: The PSR 1257 +12 System

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    We model the evolution of protoplanetary disks surrounding millisecond pulsars, using PSR 1257+12 as a test case. Initial conditions were chosen to correspond to initial angular momenta expected for supernova-fallback disks and disks formed from the tidal disruption of a companion star. Models were run under two models for the viscous evolution of disks: fully viscous and layered accretion disk models. Supernova-fallback disks result in a distribution of solids confined to within 1-2 AU and produce the requisite material to form the three known planets surrounding PSR 1257+12. Tidal disruption disks tend to slightly underproduce solids interior to 1 AU, required for forming the pulsar planets, while overproducing the amount of solids where no body, lunar mass or greater, exists. Disks evolving under 'layered' accretion spread somewhat less and deposit a higher column density of solids into the disk. In all cases, circumpulsar gas dissipates on â‰Č105\lesssim 10^{5} year timescales, making formation of gas giant planets highly unlikely.Comment: 16 pages, 17 figures, Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal (September 20, 2007 issue

    Alcohol-containing mouthwash and oral cancer risk: a review of current evidence

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