824 research outputs found

    The Yale Lar TPC

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    In this paper we give a concise description of a liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr TPC) developed at Yale, and present results from its first calibration run with cosmic rays.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, NuInt07 Conference Proceeding

    Experimental study of quasi-elastic neutrino interactions on Ar with a liquid Ar TPC exposed to the WANF neutrino beam

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    We present results from the first exposure of a liquid Ar time projection chamber to a neutrino beam. The data have been collected in 1997 with a 50 liter ICARUS-like chamber located between the CHORUS and NOMAD experiment at the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility. We focus on the analysis of quasi-elastic interactions; despite the limited size of the detector, nuclear effects beyond Fermi motion and Pauli blocking have been observed as perturbations to the pure quasi-elastic kinematics.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, prepared for the proceedings of NuInt0

    Atomic structure of Mn wires on Si(001) resolved by scanning tunneling microscopy

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    At submonolayer coverage, Mn forms atomic wires on the Si(001) surface oriented perpendicular to the underlying Si dimer rows. While many other elements form symmetric dimer wires at room temperature, we show that Mn wires have an asymmetric appearance and pin the Si dimers nearby. We find that an atomic configuration with a Mn trimer unit cell can explain these observations due to the interplay between the Si dimer buckling phase near the wire and the orientation of the Mn trimer. We study the resulting four wire configurations in detail using high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging and compare our findings with STM images simulated by density functional theory.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    A Study of the LXeGRIT Detection Efficiency for MeV Gamma-Rays during the 2000 Balloon Flight Campaign

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    LXeGRIT - Liquid Xenon Gamma-Ray Imaging Telescope - is the first prototype of a Compton telescope for \MeV \g-ray astrophysics based on a LXe time projection chamber. One of the most relevant figures of merit for a Compton telescope is the detection efficiency for \g-rays, which depends on diverse contributions such as detector geometry and passive materials, trigger efficiency, dead time, etc. A detailed study of the efficiency of the LXeGRIT instrument, based both on laboratory measurements and Monte Carlo simulations, is presented in this paper.Comment: 20 pages, 15 figures; submitted to NIM

    Compton Imaging of MeV Gamma-Rays with the Liquid Xenon Gamma-Ray Imaging Telescope (LXeGRIT)

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    The Liquid Xenon Gamma-Ray Imaging Telescope (LXeGRIT) is the first realization of a liquid xenon time projection chamber for Compton imaging of MeV gamma-ray sources in astrophysics. By measuring the energy deposit and the three spatial coordinates of individual gamma-ray scattering points, the location of the source in the sky is inferred with Compton kinematics reconstruction. The angular resolution is determined by the detector's energy and spatial resolutions, as well as by the separation in space between the first and second scattering. The imaging response of LXeGRIT was established with gamma-rays from radioactive sources, during calibration and integration at the Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, prior to the 2000 balloon flight mission. In this paper we describe in detail the various steps involved in imaging sources with LXeGRIT and present experimental results on angular resolution and other parameters which characterize its performance as a Compton telescope.Comment: 22 pages, 20 figures, submitted to NIM

    Compton scattering sequence reconstruction algorithm for the liquid xenon gamma-ray imaging telescope (LXeGRIT)

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    The Liquid Xenon Gamma-Ray Imaging Telescope (LXeGRIT) is a balloon born experiment sensitive to \g -rays in the energy band of 0.2-20 MeV. The main detector is a time projection chamber filled with high purity liquid xenon (LXeTPC), in which the three-dimensional location and energy deposit of individual \g -ray interactions are accurately measured in one homogeneous volume. To determine the \g -ray initial direction (Compton imaging), as well as to reject background, the correct sequence of interactions has to be determined. Here we report the development and optimization of an algorithm to reconstruct the Compton scattering sequence and show its performance on Monte Carlo events and LXeGRIT data.Comment: To appear in: Hard X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Detector Physics II, 2000; Proc. SPIE, vol. 4141; R.B. James & R.C. Schirato, ed

    A Parallel General Purpose Multi-Objective Optimization Framework, with Application to Beam Dynamics

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    Particle accelerators are invaluable tools for research in the basic and applied sciences, in fields such as materials science, chemistry, the biosciences, particle physics, nuclear physics and medicine. The design, commissioning, and operation of accelerator facilities is a non-trivial task, due to the large number of control parameters and the complex interplay of several conflicting design goals. We propose to tackle this problem by means of multi-objective optimization algorithms which also facilitate a parallel deployment. In order to compute solutions in a meaningful time frame a fast and scalable software framework is required. In this paper, we present the implementation of such a general-purpose framework for simulation-based multi-objective optimization methods that allows the automatic investigation of optimal sets of machine parameters. The implementation is based on a master/slave paradigm, employing several masters that govern a set of slaves executing simulations and performing optimization tasks. Using evolutionary algorithms as the optimizer and OPAL as the forward solver, validation experiments and results of multi-objective optimization problems in the domain of beam dynamics are presented. The high charge beam line at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Facility was used as the beam dynamics model. The 3D beam size, transverse momentum, and energy spread were optimized
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