13,482 research outputs found

    Integer programming based solution approaches for the train dispatching problem

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    Railroads face the challenge of competing with the trucking industry in a fastpaced environment. In this respect, they are working toward running freight trains on schedule and reducing travel times. The planned train schedules consist of departure and arrival times at main stations on the rail network. A detailed timetable, on the other hand, consists of the departure and arrival times of each train in each track section of its route. The train dispatching problem aims to determine detailed timetables over a rail network in order to minimize deviations from the planned schedule. We provide a new integer programming formulation for this problem based on a spacetime network═ż we propose heuristic algorithms to solve it and present computational results of these algorithms. Our approach includes some realistic constraints that have not been previously considered as well as all the assumptions and practical issues considered by the earlier works

    The Origin of Fluorine: Abundances in AGB Carbon Stars Revisited

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    Revised spectroscopic parameters for the HF molecule and a new CN line list in the 2.3 mu region have been recently available, allowing a revision of the F content in AGB stars. AGB carbon stars are the only observationally confirmed sources of fluorine. Nowadays there is not a consensus on the relevance of AGB stars in its Galactic chemical evolution. The aim of this article is to better constrain the contribution of these stars with a more accurate estimate of their fluorine abundances. Using new spectroscopic tools and LTE spectral synthesis, we redetermine fluorine abundances from several HF lines in the K-band in a sample of Galactic and extragalactic AGB carbon stars of spectral types N, J and SC spanning a wide range of metallicities. On average, the new derived fluorine abundances are systematically lower by 0.33 dex with respect to previous determinations. This may derive from a combination of the lower excitation energies of the HF lines and the larger macroturbulence parameters used here as well as from the new adopted CN line list. Yet, theoretical nucleosynthesis models in AGB stars agree with the new fluorine determinations at solar metallicities. At low metallicities, an agreement between theory and observations can be found by handling in a different way the radiative/convective interface at the base of the convective envelope. New fluorine spectroscopic measurements agree with theoretical models at low and at solar metallicity. Despite this, complementary sources are needed to explain its observed abundance in the solar neighbourhood.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures, accepted in A&

    Testing excitation models of rapidly oscillating Ap stars with interferometry

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    Rapidly oscillating Ap stars are unique objects in the potential they offer to study the interplay between a number of important physical phenomena, in particular, pulsations, magnetic fields, diffusion, and convection. Nevertheless, the simple understanding of how the observed pulsations are excited in these stars is still in progress. In this work we perform a test to what is possibly the most widely accepted excitation theory for this class of stellar pulsators. The test is based on the study of a subset of members of this class for which stringent data on the fundamental parameters are available thanks to interferometry. For three out of the four stars considered in this study, we find that linear, non-adiabatic models with envelope convection suppressed around the magnetic poles can reproduce well the frequency region where oscillations are observed. For the fourth star in our sample no agreement is found, indicating that a new excitation mechanism must be considered. For the three stars whose observed frequencies can be explained by the excitation models under discussion, we derive the minimum angular extent of the region where convection must be suppressed. Finally, we find that the frequency regions where modes are expected to be excited in these models is very sensitive to the stellar radius. This opens the interesting possibility of determining this quantity and related ones, such as the effective temperature or luminosity, from comparison between model predictions and observations, in other targets for which these parameters are not well determined.Comment: Accepted for publication in the MNRA

    Asymptotic Entanglement Dynamics and Geometry of Quantum States

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    A given dynamics for a composite quantum system can exhibit several distinct properties for the asymptotic entanglement behavior, like entanglement sudden death, asymptotic death of entanglement, sudden birth of entanglement, etc. A classification of the possible situations was given in [M. O. Terra Cunha, {\emph{New J. Phys}} {\bf{9}}, 237 (2007)] but for some classes there were no known examples. In this work we give a better classification for the possibile relaxing dynamics at the light of the geometry of their set of asymptotic states and give explicit examples for all the classes. Although the classification is completely general, in the search of examples it is sufficient to use two qubits with dynamics given by differential equations in Lindblad form (some of them non-autonomous). We also investigate, in each case, the probabilities to find each possible behavior for random initial states.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures; revised version accepted for publication in J. Phys. A: Math. Theo

    Tomographic Characterization of Three-Qubit Pure States with Only Two-Qubit Detectors

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    A tomographic process for three-qubit pure states using only pairwise detections is presented.Comment: 3 pages; revtex4; v2: the focus on tomography was emphasized and the experimental procedure detailed; v3: the text was improved in clarity, some mistakes were correcte
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