734 research outputs found

    Advances in isoflavone profile characterisation using matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled to HPLC/DAD in medicago species

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    Analytical methods used in phytochemistry analysis are limited by the sample preparation step, which should ideally be fast, accurate, ecofriendly and achievable using low quantities of the sample. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) may be a good alternative for combining extraction and purification procedures, thereby reducing the indicated limitations. Objective-Applying an MSPD extraction procedure coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection (HPLC/DAD) as an alternative methodology to evaluate isoflavone profiles. Methods-Isoflavone profiles were determined for the leaves of nine species of Medicago in the late flower phenological stage (one or more nodes with 50% open flowers, no seed pods). Extraction was performed following MSPD, and isoflavone profiles were characterised using HPLC/DAD. The quantified amounts were compared with previous results in different species commonly recognised as good sources of isoflavones. Results-Formononetin was the major isoflavone in most species, except M. polymorpha and M. truncatula. The isoflavone amounts were significantly different among the assayed species, with M. orbicularis and M. arabica as the major isoflavone sources, while M. rigidula presented the lowest contents. Furthermore, the detected differences allow electing the best species as a primary source of a specific isoflavone. Conclusion-The MSPD allowed good extraction efficiency, reproducibility and recovery. Some of the species showed relevant isoflavone contents, even when compared with acknowledged plant sources such as soy or red clover. To the best of our knowledge the results presented are reported for the first time in these species.T. Visnevschi-Necrasov and João C.M. Barreira are grateful to ‘FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia’ for their grants (BD/ 31734/2006 and SFRH/BPD/72802/2010, respectively). S.C. Cunha is grateful to ‘POPH-QREN - Tipologia 4.2, Fundo Social Europeu e Fundo Nacional MCTES’.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Medicago spp. as potential sources of bioactive isoflavones: Characterization according to phylogenetic and phenologic factors

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    A high variety of plant species are often proposed as potential natural sources of specific bioactive components, with emphasis in phenolic compounds. However, the ability to produce a determined phytochemical might be variable, even among species with close phylogeny. Furthermore, the metabolic dynamics vary greatly according to phenologic factors. Herein, it was verified whether isoflavone production in Medicago spp. is more associated with phylogenetic or phenologic determinants, to define the optimal productive conditions. Isoflavone profiles were characterized in field-grown Medicago species in three phenologic stages. Isoflavones were extracted by matrix solid-phase dispersion method and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode-array detector. The obtained data were evaluated by a generalized linear model (GLM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Formononetin, genistein and irilone were the most abundant isoflavones, reaching values higher than those present in acknowledged plant sources like soy or red clover. Outputs from GLM and LDA indicate that the phylogenetic factors are the most defining criteria. This study promotes Medicago spp. as potential isoflavone sources, particularly because the effects of these compounds are highly dependent on their type and concentration, with potential application as foodstuff, feedstuff, or in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutica l industry.Visnevschi-Necrasov and João C.M. Barreira are grateful to ‘‘FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia’’ for their Grants (SFRH/BD/31734/2006 and SFRH/BPD/72802/2010, respectively). S.C. Cunha is grateful to ‘‘POPH-QREN – Tipologia 4.2, Fundo Social Europeu e Fundo Nacional MCTES’’.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Phylogenetic insights on the isoflavone profile variations in Fabaceae spp.: Assessment through PCA and LDA

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    Legumes (Fabaceae) are important crops, known as sources of food, feed for livestock and raw materials for industry. Their ability to capture atmospheric nitrogen during symbiotic processes with soil bacteria reduces the need for expensive chemical fertilizers, improving soil and water quality. Several Fabaceae species are acknowledged for the high levels of secondary metabolites. Isoflavones are among the most well-known examples of these compounds, being recognized for their several types of biological activity. Herein, isoflavone profiles were characterized in nine species of four Fabaceae genera (Biserrula, Lotus, Ornithopus and Scorpiurus). Plants were harvested in the late flower physiological stage to prevent biased results due to naturally occurring variations along the vegetative cycle. Isoflavones were extracted using matrix solid-phase dispersion and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography/diode-array detection. The detected profiles revealed significant differences, inclusively among species belonging to the same genus, indicating that other factors besides the genotypic features contribute to the expression of these phenolic compounds. The classification of the results by principal component analysis placed species belonging to the same genus in different clustering groups, proving this latter assumption. However, the detected profiles proved to be characteristic of the assayed, as it was proved by the applied linear discriminant analysis.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Spin evolution of Earth-sized exoplanets, including atmospheric tides and core-mantle friction

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    Planets with masses between 0.1 and 10M(circle plus) are believed to host dense atmospheres. These atmospheres can play an important role on the planet's spin evolution, since thermal atmospheric tides, driven by the host star, may counterbalance gravitational tides. In this work, we study the long-term spin evolution of Earth-sized exoplanets. We generalize previous works by including the effect of eccentric orbits and obliquity. We show that under the effect of tides and core-mantle friction, the obliquity of the planets evolves either to 0 degrees or 180 degrees. The rotation of these planets is also expected to evolve into a very restricted number of equilibrium configurations. In general, none of these equilibria is synchronous with the orbital mean motion. The role of thermal atmospheric tides becomes more important for Earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of their systems; so they cannot be neglected when we search for their potential habitability

    De Sitter Gravity and Liouville Theory

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    We show that the spectrum of conical defects in three-dimensional de Sitter space is in one-to-one correspondence with the spectrum of vertex operators in Liouville conformal field theory. The classical conformal dimensions of vertex operators are equal to the masses of the classical point particles in dS_3 that cause the conical defect. The quantum dimensions instead are shown to coincide with the mass of the Kerr-dS_3 solution computed with the Brown-York stress tensor. Therefore classical de Sitter gravity encodes the quantum properties of Liouville theory. The equality of the gravitational and the Liouville stress tensor provides a further check of this correspondence. The Seiberg bound for vertex operators translates on the bulk side into an upper mass bound for classical point particles. Bulk solutions with cosmological event horizons correspond to microscopic Liouville states, whereas those without horizons correspond to macroscopic (normalizable) states. We also comment on recent criticism by Dyson, Lindesay and Susskind, and point out that the contradictions found by these authors may be resolved if the dual CFT is not able to capture the thermal nature of de Sitter space. Indeed we find that on the CFT side, de Sitter entropy is merely Liouville momentum, and thus has no statistical interpretation in this approach.Comment: 22 pages, LateX2e; added references for section 1 and section 2; corrected typos; improved discussion in section

    Metabolic and nutritional triggers associated with increased risk of liver complications in SARS-CoV-2

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    Obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer and smoking are risk factors for negative outcomes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which can quickly induce severe respiratory failure in 5% of cases. Coronavirus disease-associated liver injury may occur during progression of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with or without pre-existing liver disease, and damage to the liver parenchyma can be caused by infection of hepatocytes. Cirrhosis patients may be particularly vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 if suffering with cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction. Furthermore, pharmacotherapies including macrolide or quinolone antibiotics and steroids can also induce liver damage. In this review we addressed nutritional status and nutritional interventions in severe SARS-CoV-2 liver patients. As guidelines for SARS-CoV-2 in intensive care (IC) specifically are not yet available, strategies for management of sepsis and SARS are suggested in SARS-CoV-2. Early enteral nutrition (EN) should be started soon after IC admission, preferably employing iso-osmolar polymeric formula with initial protein content at 0.8 g/kg per day progressively increasing up to 1.3 g/kg per day and enriched with fish oil at 0.1 g/kg per day to 0.2 g/kg per day. Monitoring is necessary to identify signs of intolerance, hemodynamic instability and metabolic disorders, and transition to parenteral nutrition should not be delayed when energy and protein targets cannot be met via EN. Nutrients including vitamins A, C, D, E, B6, B12, folic acid, zinc, selenium and ω-3 fatty acids have in isolation or in combination shown beneficial effects upon immune function and inflammation modulation. Cautious and monitored supplementation up to upper limits may be beneficial in management strategies for SARS-CoV-2 liver patients

    Evaluation of acute oral toxicity and diuretic activity of Rudgea viburnoides (Cham.) Benth. (congonha-de-bugre)

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    Rudgea viburnoides é utilizada popularmente como diurética, hipotensora, antirreumática, antissifilítica, depurativa do sangue e tratamento da dispepsia. Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a toxicidade aguda e a atividade diurética do extrato etanólico bruto (EEBFRV) das folhas da R. viburnoides. Na toxicidade aguda empregou-se o teste de Classe, nas doses de 2000 e 5000 mg/kg, dose única, gavage, em camundongos Swiss e ratos Wistar (ambos os sexos). Na atividade diurética administrou-se em ratas Wistar o extrato bruto (40, 80 e 160 mg/kg, furosemida 20 mg/kg (controle +) e solução salina 0,9% (controle -). Não houve letalidade ou sinais de intoxicação, indicando baixa toxicidade desse extrato. O efeito diurético foi dose-dependente nas 24 h, com aumento dos parâmetros: volume de urina 24 h, excreção dos eletrólitos sódio, potássio e cloreto, uréia e creatinina. Os resultados até o momento, podem justificar a sua utilização popular como diurética.Rudgea viburnoides is popularly used as anti-hypertensive, anti-rheumatic, antissifilitic, blood depurative and for treatment of dyspepsia (leaves, bark, tea). The acute toxicity of ethanolic extract (EEBFRV) in single dose was performed by gavage of doses of 2000 and 5000 mg/kg in Swiss mice and Wistar rats, both sexes, by the class test. To diuretic activity in Wistar rats, it was used the EEBFRV at the doses of 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg, furosemide 20 mg/kg (control +), and saline solution 0.9 % (control -). Regarding acute toxicity, no mortality and no toxicity signs at the dose levels were observed, indicating low toxicity of the extract. The EEBFRV showed statistically significant dose-dependent diuretic effect in 24 h, increasing all parameters evaluated (24h urine volume, excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- electrolytes, urea (BUN) and creatinine). Thus, the results so far may justify the popular use of Rudgea viburnoides as diuretic.Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aire

    A Spatially Resolved Study of Cold Dust, Molecular Gas, H ii Regions, and Stars in the z = 2.12 Submillimeter Galaxy ALESS67.1

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    We present detailed studies of a z = 2.12 submillimeter galaxy, ALESS67.1, using sub-arcsecond resolution ALMA, adaptive optics-aided VLT/SINFONI, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/CANDELS data to investigate the kinematics and spatial distributions of dust emission (870 μm continuum), 12CO(J = 3–2), strong optical emission lines, and visible stars. Dynamical modeling of the optical emission lines suggests that ALESS67.1 is not a pure rotating disk but a merger, consistent with the apparent tidal features revealed in the HST imaging. Our sub-arcsecond resolution data set allows us to measure half-light radii for all the tracers, and we find a factor of 4–6 smaller sizes in dust continuum compared to all the other tracers, including 12CO; also, ultraviolet (UV) and Hα emission are significantly offset from the dust continuum. The spatial mismatch between the UV continuum and the cold dust and gas reservoir supports the explanation that geometrical effects are responsible for the offset of the dusty galaxy on the IRX–β diagram. Using a dynamical method we derive an αCO=1.8±1.0{\alpha }_{\mathrm{CO}}=1.8\pm 1.0, consistent with other submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) that also have resolved CO and dust measurements. Assuming a single αCO{\alpha }_{\mathrm{CO}} value we also derive resolved gas and star formation rate surface densities, and find that the core region of the galaxy (≲5\lesssim 5 kpc) follows the trend of mergers on the Schmidt–Kennicutt relationship, whereas the outskirts (≳5\gtrsim 5 kpc) lie on the locus of normal star-forming galaxies, suggesting different star formation efficiencies within one galaxy. Our results caution against using single size or morphology for different tracers of the star formation activity and gas content of galaxies, and therefore argue the need to use spatially resolved, multi-wavelength observations to interpret the properties of SMGs, and perhaps even for z>1z\gt 1 galaxies in general
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