1,939 research outputs found

    p518, a small floR plasmid from a South American isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

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    A small (3.9 kb) plasmid (p518), conferring resistance to florfenicol (MIC >8 μg/mL) and chloramphenicol (MIC >8 μg/mL) was isolated from an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae clinical isolate from Southeastern Brazil. To date, this is the smallest florfenicol resistance plasmid isolated from a member of the Pasteurellaceae. The complete nucleotide of this plasmid revealed a unique gene arrangement compared to previously reported florfenicol resistance plasmids found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae. In addition to the floR gene and a lysR gene, common to various florfenicol resistance plasmids, p518 also encodes strA and a partial strB sequence. An origin of replication (oriV) similar to that in the broad host range plasmid, pLS88, was identified in p518, and transformation into Escherichia coli MFDpir confirmed the ability to replicate in other species. Mobilisation genes appear to have been lost, with only a partial mobC sequence remaining, and attempts to transfer p518 from a conjugal donor strain (E. coli MFDpir) were not successful, suggesting this plasmid is not mobilisable. Similarly, attempts to transfer p518 into a competent A. pleuropneumoniae strain, MIDG2331, by natural transformation were also not successful. These results suggest that p518 may be only transferred by vertical descent

    Study of alkaline hydrothermal activation of belite cements by thermal analysis

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    The effect of alkaline hydrothermal activation of class-C fly ash belite cement was studied using thermal analysis (TG/DTG) by determining the increase in the combined water during a period of hydration of 180 days. The results were compared with those obtained for a belite cement hydrothermally activated in water. The two belite cements were fabricated via the hydrothermal-calcination route of class-C fly ash in 1 M NaOH solution (FABC-2-N) or demineralised water (FABC-2-W). From the results, the effect of the alkaline hydrothermal activation of belite cement (FABC-2-N) was clearly differentiated, mainly at early ages of hydration, for which the increase in the combined water was markedly higher than that of the belite cement that was hydrothermally activated in water. Important direct quantitative correlations were obtained among physicochemical parameters, such as the combined water, the BET surface area, the volume of nano-pores, and macro structural engineering properties such as the compressive mechanical strength

    Profiling the circulating miRnome reveals a temporal regulation of the bone injury response

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    Bone injury healing is an orchestrated process that starts with an inflammatory phase followed by repair and remodelling of the bone defect. The initial inflammation is characterized by local changes in immune cell populations and molecular mediators, including microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the systemic response to bone injury remains largely uncharacterized. Thus, this study aimed to profile the changes in the plasma miRnome after bone injury and determine its biological implications. Methods: A rat model of femoral bone defect was used, and animals were evaluated at days 3 and 14 after injury. Non-operated (NO) and sham operated animals were used as controls. Blood and spleen were collected and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and plasma were separated. Plasma miRnome was determined by RT-qPCR array and bioinformatics Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was performed. Proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) was evaluated by Ki67 staining and high-throughput cell imaging. Candidate miRNAs were evaluated in splenocytes by RT-qPCR, and proteins found in the IPA analysis were analysed in splenocytes and PBMC by Western blot. Results: Bone injury resulted in timely controlled changes to the miRNA expression profile in plasma. At day 3 there was a major down-regulation of miRNA levels, which was partially recovered by day 14 post-injury. Interestingly, bone injury led to a significant up-regulation of let-7a, let-7d and miR-21 in plasma and splenocytes at day 14 relative to day 3 after bone injury, but not in sham operated animals. IPA predicted that most miRNAs temporally affected were involved in cellular development, proliferation and movement. MSC proliferation was analysed and found significantly increased in response to plasma of animals days 3 and 14 post-injury, but not from NO animals. Moreover, IPA predicted that miRNA processing proteins Ago2 and Dicer were specifically inhibited at day 3 post-injury, with Ago2 becoming activated at day 14. Protein levels of Ago2 and Dicer in splenocytes were increased at day 14 relative to day 3 post-bone injury and NO animals, while in PBMC, levels were reduced at day 3 (albeit Dicer was not significant) and remained low at day 14. Ephrin receptor B6 followed the same tendency as Ago2 and Dicer, while Smad2/3 was significantly decreased in splenocytes from day 14 relative to NO and day 3 post-bone injury animals. Conclusion: Results show a systemic miRNA response to bone injury that is regulated in time and is related to inflammation resolution and the start of bone repair/regeneration, unravelling candidate miRNAs to be used as biomarkers in the monitoring of healthy bone healing and as therapeutic targets for the development of improved bone regeneration therapies.This work was funded by project NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000012, supported by Norte Portugal Regional Operational Programme (NORTE 2020), under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), and AO Foundation-Switzerland (project S-15-83S). AMS, MIA, CC and JHT were supported by FCT-Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, through fellowships SFRH/BD/ 85968/2012, SFRH/BPD/91011/2012, SFRH/BDP/ 87071/2012 and SFRH/BD/112832/2015, respecttively. Work in Dr. Calin's laboratory is supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH/NCATS) grant UH3TR00943-01 through the NIH Common Fund, Office of Strategic Coordination (OSC), the NIH/NCI grant 1R01CA182905-01, a U54 grant-UPR/MDACC Partnership for Excellence in Cancer Research 2016 Pilot Project, a Team DOD (CA160445P1) grant, a Ladies Leukemia League grant, a CLL Moonshot Flagship project, a SINF 2017 grant, and the Estate of C. G. Johnson, J

    Increased CK5/CK8-Positive Intermediate Cells with Stromal Smooth Muscle Cell Atrophy in the Mice Lacking Prostate Epithelial Androgen Receptor

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    Results from tissue recombination experiments documented well that stromal androgen receptor (AR) plays essential roles in prostate development, but epithelial AR has little roles in prostate development. Using cell specific knockout AR strategy, we generated pes-ARKO mouse with knock out of AR only in the prostate epithelial cells and demonstrated that epithelial AR might also play important roles in the development of prostate gland. We found mice lacking the prostate epithelial AR have increased apoptosis in epithelial CK8-positive luminal cells and increased proliferation in epithelial CK5-positive basal cells. The consequences of these two contrasting results could then lead to the expansion of CK5/CK8-positive intermediate cells, accompanied by stromal atrophy and impaired ductal morphogenesis. Molecular mechanism dissection found AR target gene, TGF-β1, might play important roles in this epithelial AR-to-stromal morphogenesis modulation. Collectively, these results provided novel information relevant to epithelial AR functions in epithelial-stromal interactions during the development of normal prostate, and suggested AR could also function as suppressor in selective cells within prostate

    A sensitive flow cytometric methodology for studying the binding of L. chagasi to canine peritoneal macrophages

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    BACKGROUND: The Leishmania promastigote-macrophage interaction occurs through the association of multiple receptors on the biological membrane surfaces. The success of the parasite infection is dramatically dependent on this early interaction in the vertebrate host, which permits or not the development of the disease. In this study we propose a novel methodology using flow cytometry to study this interaction, and compare it with a previously described "in vitro" binding assay. METHODS: To study parasite-macrophage interaction, peritoneal macrophages were obtained from 4 dogs and adjusted to 3 × 10(6 )cells/mL. Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi parasites (stationary-phase) were adjusted to 5 × 10(7 )cells/mL. The interaction between CFSE-stained Leishmania chagasi and canine peritoneal macrophages was performed in polypropylene tubes to avoid macrophage adhesion. We carried out assays in the presence or absence of normal serum or in the presence of a final concentration of 5% of C5 deficient (serum from AKR/J mice) mouse serum. Then, the number of infected macrophages was counted in an optical microscope, as well as by flow citometry. Macrophages obtained were stained with anti-CR3 (CD11b/CD18) antibodies and analyzed by flow citometry. RESULTS: Our results have shown that the interaction between Leishmania and macrophages can be measured by flow cytometry using the fluorescent dye CFSE to identify the Leishmania, and measuring simultaneously the expression of an important integrin involved in this interaction: the CD11b/CD18 (CR3 or Mac-1) β2 integrin. CONCLUSION: Flow cytometry offers rapid, reliable and sensitive measurements of single cell interactions with Leishmania in unstained or phenotypically defined cell populations following staining with one or more fluorochromes

    Human α2β1HI CD133+VE epithelial prostate stem cells express low levels of active androgen receptor

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    Stem cells are thought to be the cell of origin in malignant transformation in many tissues, but their role in human prostate carcinogenesis continues to be debated. One of the conflicts with this model is that cancer stem cells have been described to lack androgen receptor (AR) expression, which is of established importance in prostate cancer initiation and progression. We re-examined the expression patterns of AR within adult prostate epithelial differentiation using an optimised sensitive and specific approach examining transcript, protein and AR regulated gene expression. Highly enriched populations were isolated consisting of stem (α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE)), transiently amplifying (α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(-VE)) and terminally differentiated (α(2)β(1)(LOW) CD133(-VE)) cells. AR transcript and protein expression was confirmed in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) and CD133(-VE) progenitor cells. Flow cytometry confirmed that median (±SD) fraction of cells expressing AR were 77% (±6%) in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) stem cells and 68% (±12%) in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(-VE) transiently amplifying cells. However, 3-fold lower levels of total AR protein expression (peak and median immunofluorescence) were present in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) stem cells compared with differentiated cells. This finding was confirmed with dual immunostaining of prostate sections for AR and CD133, which again demonstrated low levels of AR within basal CD133(+VE) cells. Activity of the AR was confirmed in prostate progenitor cells by the expression of low levels of the AR regulated genes PSA, KLK2 and TMPRSS2. The confirmation of AR expression in prostate progenitor cells allows integration of the cancer stem cell theory with the established models of prostate cancer initiation based on a functional AR. Further study of specific AR functions in prostate stem and differentiated cells may highlight novel mechanisms of prostate homeostasis and insights into tumourigenesis
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