63 research outputs found

    Comptonisation of Cosmic Microwave Background Photons in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

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    We present theoretical modelling of the electron distribution produced by annihilating neutralino dark matter in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). In particular, we follow up the idea of Colafrancesco (2004) and find that such electrons distort the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. For an assumed neutralino mass of 10 GeV and beam size of 1'', the SZ temperature decrement is of the order of nano-Kelvin for dSph models with a soft core. By contrast, it is of the order of micro-Kelvin for the strongly cusped dSph models favoured by some cosmological simulations. Although this is out of reach of current instruments, it may well be detectable by future mm telescopes, such as ALMA. We also show that the upscattered CMB photons have energies within reach of upcoming X-ray observatories, but that the flux of such photons is too small to be detectable soon. Nonetheless, we conclude that searching for the dark matter induced Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect is a promising way of constraining the dark distribution in dSphs, especially if the particles are light.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figures, MNRAS, in pres

    Atmospheric phase correction using CARMA-PACS: high angular resolution observations of the FU Orionis star PP 13S*

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    We present 0".15 resolution observations of the 227 GHz continuum emission from the circumstellar disk around the FU Orionis star PP 13S*. The data were obtained with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) Paired Antenna Calibration System (C-PACS), which measures and corrects the atmospheric delay fluctuations on the longest baselines of the array in order to improve the sensitivity and angular resolution of the observations. A description of the C-PACS technique and the data reduction procedures are presented. C-PACS was applied to CARMA observations of PP 13S*, which led to a factor of 1.6 increase in the observed peak flux of the source, a 36% reduction in the noise of the image, and a 52% decrease in the measured size of the source major axis. The calibrated complex visibilities were fitted with a theoretical disk model to constrain the disk surface density. The total disk mass from the best-fit model corresponds to 0.06 M_⊙, which is larger than the median mass of a disk around a classical T Tauri star. The disk is optically thick at a wavelength of 1.3 mm for orbital radii less than 48 AU. At larger radii, the inferred surface density of the PP 13S* disk is an order of magnitude lower than that needed to develop a gravitational instability

    LoCuSS: The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect and Weak Lensing Mass Scaling Relation

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    We present the first weak-lensing-based scaling relation between galaxy cluster mass, M_wl, and integrated Compton parameter Y_sph. Observations of 18 galaxy clusters at z~0.2 were obtained with the Subaru 8.2-m telescope and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array. The M_wl-Y_sph scaling relations, measured at Delta=500, 1000, and 2500 rho_c, are consistent in slope and normalization with previous results derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium (HSE). We find an intrinsic scatter in M_wl at fixed Y_sph of 20%, larger than both previous measurements of M_HSE-Y_sph scatter as well as the scatter in true mass at fixed Y_sph found in simulations. Moreover, the scatter in our lensing-based scaling relations is morphology dependent, with 30-40% larger M_wl for undisturbed compared to disturbed clusters at the same Y_sph at r_500. Further examination suggests that the segregation may be explained by the inability of our spherical lens models to faithfully describe the three-dimensional structure of the clusters, in particular, the structure along the line-of-sight. We find that the ellipticity of the brightest cluster galaxy, a proxy for halo orientation, correlates well with the offset in mass from the mean scaling relation, which supports this picture. This provides empirical evidence that line-of-sight projection effects are an important systematic uncertainty in lensing-based scaling relations.Comment: Accepted versio

    Joint analysis of X-ray and Sunyaev Zel'dovich observations of galaxy clusters using an analytic model of the intra-cluster medium

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    We perform a joint analysis of X-ray and Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SZ) effect data using an analytic model that describes the gas properties of galaxy clusters. The joint analysis allows the measurement of the cluster gas mass fraction profile and Hubble constant independent of cosmological parameters. Weak cosmological priors are used to calculate the overdensity radius within which the gas mass fractions are reported. Such an analysis can provide direct constraints on the evolution of the cluster gas mass fraction with redshift. We validate the model and the joint analysis on high signal-to-noise data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array for two clusters, Abell 2631 and Abell 2204.Comment: ApJ in pres

    Comparison of Pressure Profiles of Massive Relaxed Galaxy Clusters using Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and X-ray Data

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    We present Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect observations of a sample of 25 massive relaxed galaxy clusters observed with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA), an 8-element interferometer that is part of the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We perform an analysis of new SZA data and archival Chandra observations of this sample to investigate the integrated pressure -- a proxy for cluster mass -- determined from X-ray and SZ observations, two independent probes of the intra-cluster medium. This analysis makes use of a model for the intra-cluster medium introduced by Bulbul (2010) which can be applied simultaneously to SZ and X-ray data. With this model, we estimate the pressure profile for each cluster using a joint analysis of the SZ and X-ray data, and using the SZ data alone. We find that the integrated pressures measured from X-ray and SZ data are consistent. This conclusion is in agreement with recent results obtained using WMAP and Planck data, confirming that SZ and X-ray observations of massive clusters detect the same amount of thermal pressure from the intra-cluster medium. To test for possible biases introduced by our choice of model, we also fit the SZ data using the universal pressure profile proposed by Arnaud (2010), and find consistency between the two models out to r500 in the pressure profiles and integrated pressures.Comment: Accepted for New Journal of Physics, Focus Issue on Galaxy Cluster

    Sunyaev Zel'dovich Effect Observations of Strong Lensing Galaxy Clusters: Probing the Over-Concentration Problem

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    We have measured the Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SZ) effect for a sample of ten strong lensing selected galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev Zel'dovich Array (SZA). The SZA is sensitive to structures on spatial scales of a few arcminutes, while the strong lensing mass modeling constrains the mass at small scales (typically < 30"). Combining the two provides information about the projected concentrations of the strong lensing clusters. The Einstein radii we measure are twice as large as expected given the masses inferred from SZ scaling relations. A Monte Carlo simulation indicates that a sample randomly drawn from the expected distribution would have a larger median Einstein radius than the observed clusters about 3% of the time. The implied overconcentration has been noted in previous studies with smaller samples of lensing clusters. It persists for this sample, with the caveat that this could result from a systematic effect such as if the gas fractions of the strong lensing clusters are substantially below what is expected.Comment: submitte

    Identifying Rare Variants from Exome Scans: The GAW17 Experience

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    Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 (GAW17) provided a platform for evaluating existing statistical genetic methods and for developing novel methods to analyze rare variants that modulate complex traits. In this article, we present an overview of the 1000 Genomes Project exome data and simulated phenotype data that were distributed to GAW17 participants for analyses, the different issues addressed by the participants, and the process of preparation of manuscripts resulting from the discussions during the worksho

    The CARMA Paired Antenna Calibration System: Atmospheric Phase Correction for Millimeter Wave Interferometry and its Application to Mapping the Ultraluminous Galaxy Arp 193

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    Phase fluctuations introduced by the atmosphere are the main limiting factor in attaining diffraction limited performance in extended interferometric arrays at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. We report the results of C-PACS, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy Paired Antenna Calibration System. We present a systematic study of several hundred test observations taken during the 2009–2010 winter observing season where we utilize CARMA's eight 3.5 m antennas to monitor an atmospheric calibrator while simultaneously acquiring science observations with 6.1 and 10.4 m antennas on baselines ranging from a few hundred meters to ~2 km. We find that C-PACS is systematically successful at improving coherence on long baselines under a variety of atmospheric conditions. We find that the angular separation between the atmospheric calibrator and target source is the most important consideration, with consistently successful phase correction at CARMA requiring a suitable calibrator located ≾6° away from the science target. We show that cloud cover does not affect the success of C-PACS. We demonstrate C-PACS in typical use by applying it to the observations of the nearby very luminous infrared galaxy Arp 193 in ^(12)CO(2-1) at a linear resolution of ≈70 pc (0".12 × 0".18), 3 times better than previously published molecular maps of this galaxy. We resolve the molecular disk rotation kinematics and the molecular gas distribution and measure the gas surface densities and masses on 90 pc scales. We find that molecular gas constitutes ~30% of the dynamical mass in the inner 700 pc of this object with a surface density ~10^4 M_⊙ pc^(−2); we compare these properties to those of the starburst region of NGC 253

    Identifying rare variants from exome scans: the GAW17 experience

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    Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 (GAW17) provided a platform for evaluating existing statistical genetic methods and for developing novel methods to analyze rare variants that modulate complex traits. In this article, we present an overview of the 1000 Genomes Project exome data and simulated phenotype data that were distributed to GAW17 participants for analyses, the different issues addressed by the participants, and the process of preparation of manuscripts resulting from the discussions during the workshop
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