24,448 research outputs found

    Measuring the degree of unitarity for any quantum process

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    Quantum processes can be divided into two categories: unitary and non-unitary ones. For a given quantum process, we can define a \textit{degree of the unitarity (DU)} of this process to be the fidelity between it and its closest unitary one. The DU, as an intrinsic property of a given quantum process, is able to quantify the distance between the process and the group of unitary ones, and is closely related to the noise of this quantum process. We derive analytical results of DU for qubit unital channels, and obtain the lower and upper bounds in general. The lower bound is tight for most of quantum processes, and is particularly tight when the corresponding DU is sufficiently large. The upper bound is found to be an indicator for the tightness of the lower bound. Moreover, we study the distribution of DU in random quantum processes with different environments. In particular, The relationship between the DU of any quantum process and the non-markovian behavior of it is also addressed.Comment: 7 pages, 2 figure

    Gluon GPDs and Exclusive Photoproduction of a Quarkonium in Forward Region

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    Forward photoproduction of J/ψJ/\psi can be used to extract Generalized Parton Distributions(GPD's) of gluons. We analyze the process at twist-3 level and study relevant classifications of twist-3 gluon GPD's. At leading power or twist-2 level the produced J/ψJ/\psi is transversely polarized. We find that at twist-3 the produced J/ψJ/\psi is longitudinally polarized. Our study shows that in high energy limit the twist-3 amplitude is only suppressed by the inverse power of the heavy quark mass relatively to the twist-2 amplitude. This indicates that the power correction to the cross-section of unpolarized J/ψJ/\psi can have a sizeable effect. We have also derived the amplitude of the production of hch_c at twist-3, but the result contains end-point singularities. The production of other quarkonia has been briefly discussed.Comment: Discussions of results are adde

    Learning a Mixture of Deep Networks for Single Image Super-Resolution

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    Single image super-resolution (SR) is an ill-posed problem which aims to recover high-resolution (HR) images from their low-resolution (LR) observations. The crux of this problem lies in learning the complex mapping between low-resolution patches and the corresponding high-resolution patches. Prior arts have used either a mixture of simple regression models or a single non-linear neural network for this propose. This paper proposes the method of learning a mixture of SR inference modules in a unified framework to tackle this problem. Specifically, a number of SR inference modules specialized in different image local patterns are first independently applied on the LR image to obtain various HR estimates, and the resultant HR estimates are adaptively aggregated to form the final HR image. By selecting neural networks as the SR inference module, the whole procedure can be incorporated into a unified network and be optimized jointly. Extensive experiments are conducted to investigate the relation between restoration performance and different network architectures. Compared with other current image SR approaches, our proposed method achieves state-of-the-arts restoration results on a wide range of images consistently while allowing more flexible design choices. The source codes are available in http://www.ifp.illinois.edu/~dingliu2/accv2016

    Mixed adsorption and surface tension prediction of nonideal ternary surfactant systems

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    To deal with the mixed adsorption of nonideal ternary surfactant systems, the regular solution approximation for nonideal binary surfactant systems is extended and a pseudo-binary system treatment is also proposed. With both treatments, the compositions of the mixed monolayer and the solution concentrations required to produce given surface tensions can be predicted based only on the gamma-LogC curves of individual surfactants and the pair interaction parameters. Conversely, the surface tensions of solutions with different bulk compositions can be predicted by the surface tension equations for mixed surfactant systems. Two ternary systems: SDS/Hyamine 1622/AEO7, composed of homogeneous surfactants, and AES/DPCl/AEO9, composed of commercial surfactants, in the presence of excess NaCl, are examined for the applicability of the two treatments. The results show that, in general, the pseudo-binary system treatment gives better prediction than the extended regular solution approximation, and the applicability of the latter to typical anionic/cationic/nonionic nonideal ternary surfactant systems seems to depend on the combined interaction parameter, (βans+βcns)/2βacs/4 {\mathop {(\beta }\nolimits_{an}^s } + {\mathop \beta \nolimits_{cn}^s })/2 - {\mathop \beta \nolimits_{ac}^s }/4 : the more it deviates from zero, the larger the prediction difference. If (βans+βcns)/2βacs/4 {\mathop {(\beta }\nolimits_{an}^s } + {\mathop \beta \nolimits_{cn}^s })/2 - {\mathop \beta \nolimits_{ac}^s }/4 rarr0, good agreements between predicted and experimental results can be obtained and both treatments, though differently derived, are interrelated and tend to be equivalent

    Novel interface-selected waves and their influences on wave competitions

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    The topic of interface effects in wave propagation has attracted great attention due to their theoretical significance and practical importance. In this paper we study nonlinear oscillatory systems consisting of two media separated by an interface, and find a novel phenomenon: interface can select a type of waves (ISWs). Under certain well defined parameter condition, these waves propagate in two different media with same frequency and same wave number; the interface of two media is transparent to these waves. The frequency and wave number of these interface-selected waves (ISWs) are predicted explicitly. Varying parameters from this parameter set, the wave numbers of two domains become different, and the difference increases from zero continuously as the distance between the given parameters and this parameter set increases from zero. It is found that ISWs can play crucial roles in practical problems of wave competitions, e.g., ISWs can suppress spirals and antispirals