22 research outputs found

    Probing the initial conditions of high-mass star formation -- IV. Gas dynamics and NH2_2D chemistry in high-mass precluster and protocluster clumps

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    The initial stage of star formation is a complex area study because of its high density and low temperature. Under such conditions, many molecules become depleted from the gas phase by freezing out onto dust grains. However, the deuterated species could remain gaseous and are thus ideal tracers. We investigate the gas dynamics and NH2_2D chemistry in eight massive pre/protocluster clumps. We present NH2_2D 111_{11}-101_{01} (at 85.926 GHz), NH3_3 (1, 1) and (2, 2) observations in the eight clumps using the PdBI and the VLA, respectively. We find that the distribution between deuterium fractionation and kinetic temperature shows a number density peak at around Tkin=16.1T_{\rm kin}=16.1 K, and the NH2_2D cores are mainly located at a temperature range of 13.0 to 22.0 K. We detect seven instances of extremely high deuterium fractionation of 1.0⩽Dfrac⩽1.411.0 \leqslant D_{\rm frac} \leqslant 1.41. We find that the NH2_2D emission does not appear to coincide exactly with either dust continuum or NH3_3 peak positions, but often surrounds the star-formation active regions. This suggests that the NH2_{2}D has been destroyed by the central young stellar object (YSO) due to its heating. The detected NH2_2D lines are very narrow with a median width of 0.98±0.02km/s\rm 0.98\pm0.02 km/s. The extracted NH2_2D cores are gravitationally bound (αvir<1\alpha_{\rm vir} < 1), are likely prestellar or starless, and can potentially form intermediate-mass or high-mass stars. Using NH3_3 (1, 1) as a dynamical tracer, we find very complicated dynamical movement, which can be explained by a combined process with outflow, rotation, convergent flow, collision, large velocity gradient, and rotating toroids. High deuterium fractionation strongly depends on the temperature condition. NH2_2D is a poor evolutionary indicator of high-mass star formation in evolved stages, but a useful tracer in the starless and prestellar cores.Comment: 27 pages, 25 figures, 6 tables, accepted for publication in A&

    The Inception of Star Cluster Formation Revealed by [CII] Emission Around an Infrared Dark Cloud

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    We present SOFIA-upGREAT observations of [CII] emission of Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G035.39-00.33, designed to trace its atomic gas envelope and thus test models of the origins of such clouds. Several velocity components of [CII] emission are detected, tracing structures that are at a wide range of distances in the Galactic plane. We find a main component that is likely associated with the IRDC and its immediate surroundings. This strongest emission component has a velocity similar to that of the 13^{13}CO(2-1) emission of the IRDC, but offset by ∼3 km s−1\sim3\:{\rm km\:s}^{-1} and with a larger velocity width of ∼9 km s−1\sim9\:{\rm km\:s}^{-1}. The spatial distribution of the [CII] emission of this component is also offset predominantly to one side of the dense filamentary structure of the IRDC. The CII column density is estimated to be of the order of ∼1017−1018 cm−2\sim10^{17}-10^{18}\,{\rm cm}^{-2}. We compare these results to the [CII] emission from numerical simulations of magnetized, dense gas filaments formed from giant molecular cloud (GMC) collisions, finding similar spatial and kinematic offsets. These observations and modeling of [CII] add further to the evidence that IRDC G035.39-00.33 has been formed by a process of GMC-GMC collision, which may thus be an important mechanism for initiating star cluster formation.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, submitted to MNRAS Letter

    Magnetic Fields and Massive Star Formation

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    Massive stars (M>8M > 8 \msun) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μ\mum obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of \lsim 0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40∘40^\circ of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (\lsim 10^3 AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scale of 0.01 - 0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journa

    ALMA-IMF VIII -- Combination of Interferometric Continuum Images with Single-Dish Surveys and Structural Analysis of Six Protoclusters

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    We present the combination of ALMA-IMF and single-dish continuum images from the Mustang-2 Galactic Plane Survey (MGPS90) at 3 millimeters and the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) at 1 millimeter. Six and ten out of the fiffteen ALMA-IMF fields are combined with MGPS90 and BGPS, respectively. The combination is made via the feathering technique. We used the dendrogram algorithm throughout the combined images, and performed further analysis in the six fields with combination in both bands (G012.80, W43-MM1, W43-MM2, W43-MM3, W51-E, W51-IRS2). In these fields, we calculated spectral index maps and used them to separate regions dominated by dust or free-free emission, and then performed further structural analysis. We report the basic physical parameters of the dust-dominated (column densities, masses) and ionized (emission measures, hydrogen ionization photon rates) structures. We also searched for multi-scale relations in the dust-dominated structures across the analyzed fields, finding that the fraction of mass in dendrogram leaves (which we label as "Leaf Mass Eficiency", LME) as a function of molecular gas column density follows a similar trend: a rapid, exponential-like growth, with maximum values approaching 100% in most cases. The observed behaviour of the LME with gas column is tentatively interpreted as an indicator of large star formation activity within the ALMA-IMF protoclusters. W51-E and G012.80 stand out as cases with comparatively large and reduced potential for further star formation, respectively.Comment: Accepted to The Astrophysical Journal Supplemen

    A global view on star formation: the GLOSTAR Galactic plane survey III. 6.7 GHz methanol maser survey in Cygnus X

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    The Cygnus X complex is covered by the Global View of Star Formation in the Milky Way (GLOSTAR) survey, an unbiased radio-wavelength Galactic plane survey, in 4–8 GHz continuum radiation and several spectral lines. The GLOSTAR survey observed the 6.7 GHz transition of methanol (CH3_3OH), an exclusive tracer of high-mass young stellar objects. Using the Very Large Array in both the B and D configurations, we observed an area in Cygnus X of 7° × 3° in size and simultaneously covered the methanol line and the continuum, allowing cross-registration. We detected thirteen sources with Class II methanol maser emission and one source with methanol absorption. Two methanol maser sources are newly detected; in addition, we found four new velocity components associated with known masers. Five masers are concentrated in the DR21 ridge and W75N. We determined the characteristics of the detected masers and investigated the association with infrared, (sub)millimeter, and radio continuum emission. All maser sources are associated with (sub)millimeter dust continuum emission, which is consistent with the picture of masers tracing regions in an active stage of star formation. On the other hand, only five masers (38 ± 17%) have radio continuum counterparts seen with GLOSTAR within ~1″, testifying to their youth. Comparing the distributions of the bolometric luminosity and the luminosity-to-mass ratio of cores that host 6.7 GHz methanol masers with those of the full core population, we identified lower limits LBol_{Bol} ~ 200 L⊙_⊙ and LBol_{Bol}/Mcore_{core} ~ 1 L⊙_⊙M⊙−1_⊙^{−1} for a dust source to host maser emission

    La stratosphérique détection de l’hydrure d’hélium

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    Une raie d'hydrure d'hélium a été repérée dans la nébuleuse NGC 7027, à 3 200 années-lumière de la Terre. C'est une découverte fondamentale, car cet ion est considéré comme la première liaison moléculaire à s'être créée dans l'Univers, 100 000 ans après le Big Bang. Et une première, ce travail ayant été réalisé dansla basse stratosphère grâce à un avion transformé en observatoire infrarouge

    ATLASGAL Catalogs: Source-Based Lists

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    This dataset consists of compact source catalogs produced from the 870 micron continuum survey using the clump finding algorithms SExtractor and Gaussclumps. The SExtractor derived catalog is outlined in Contreras et al. 2013 and consists of 6639 compact sources. The Gaussclumps derived catalog is outlined in Csengeri et al. 2014 and consists of 10861 compact sources. Both catalogs can be downloaded in full or queried via a cone search available here.</a

    The earliest phases of the formation of high-mass stars

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    Alors que les étoiles massives ont un impact majeur et dominant sur l'énergétique des galaxies, leur processus de formation reste mal compris. Ce travail fournit les observations des phases précoces de leur formation pour contraindre aux modèles théoriques. Une grande partie du travail est dédiée au observations en haut résolution angulaire dans Cygnus X, parce que le distance de ce complexe moléculaire massif procure l'unique opportunité de pouvoir résoudre les objets en effondrement individuel avec l'interféromètre IRAM PdBI. L'étude est présenté sur un échantillon de structures compactes et denses qui sont les sites potentiels de formation des nouvelles étoiles massives du complexe. L'étude systématique de la fragmentation des cœurs (Bontemps et al. 2010) montre que ces cœurs sont éventuellement sous fragmenté et forment les étoiles massives. Ainsi que la cinématique du gaz dense des cœurs montre que le réservoir de masse de ces protoétoiles à l'échelle des cœurs est systématiquement organisé en flots supersoniques, probablement convergents qui seraient à l'origine des protoétoiles (Csengeri et al. 2010). Ainsi une étude complète en interférométrie millimétrique de la région de DR21(OH), la plus massive et dense de Cygnus X est présentée, qui montre la naissance d'une proto-amas, aussi riche que le Orion Nebula Cluster. La dynamique est aussi importante même dans le gaz le plus froid et dense qui trace le mieux le gaz pré-stellaire. Dans l'ensemble les procès dynamique du gaz sont trouve très important dans le formation des structures massives.PARIS7-Bibliothèque centrale (751132105) / SudocSudocFranceF

    SPARKS II.: Complex organic molecules in accretion shocks around a hot core precursor

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    Classical hot cores are rich in molecular emission, and they show a high abundance of complex organic molecules (COMs). The emergence of molecular complexity is poorly constrained in the early evolution of hot cores. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array we put observational constraints on the physical location of COMs in a high-mass protostellar envelope associated with the G328.2551-0.5321 clump. The protostar is single down to ~400au scales and we resolve the emission region of COMs. Using thermodynamic equilibrium modelling of the available 7.5 GHz bandwidth around ~345 GHz, we detect emission from 10 COMs, and identify a line of deuterated water (HDO). The most extended emission originates from methanol, methyl formate and formamide. Together with HDO, these molecules are found to be associated with both the accretion shocks and the inner envelope, for which we estimate a moderate temperature of Tkin∼T_{\rm kin}\sim110 K. Our findings reveal a significant difference in the distribution of COMs. O-bearing COMs, such as ethanol, acetone, and ethylene glycol are almost exclusively found and show a higher abundance towards the accretion shocks with Tkin∼T_{\rm kin}\sim180 K. Whereas N-bearing COMs with a CN group, such as vinyl and ethyl cyanide peak on the central position, thus the protostar and the accretion disk. This is the first observational evidence for a large column density of COMs seen towards accretion shocks at the centrifugal barrier at the inner envelope. Since the molecular composition is dominated by that of the accretion shocks and the radiatively heated hot inner region is very compact, we propose this source to be a precursor to a classical, radiatively heated hot core

    Class II 6.7 GHz Methanol Maser Association with Young Massive Cores Revealed by ALMA

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    International audienceWe explored the implication of the association (or lack of it) of 6.7 GHz class II methanol (CH3OH) masers with massive dense cores (MDCs) detected (within a sample of ATLASGAL selected infrared quiet massive clumps) at 0.9 mm with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter array. We found 42 out of the 112 cores (37.5%) detected with the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) to be associated with 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers. The lowest mass core with CH3OH maser association is ∼ 12 {M}ȯ . The angular offsets of the ACA cores from the 6.7 GHz CH3OH maser peak positions range from 0.″17 to 4.″79, with a median value of 2.″19. We found a weak correlation between the 0.9 mm continuum (MDCs) peak fluxes and the peak fluxes of their associated methanol multibeam (MMB) 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers. About 90% of the cores associated with 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers have masses of >40 M ⊙. The CH3OH maser containing cores are candidates for embedded high-mass protostellar objects in their earliest evolutionary stages. With our ACA 0.9 continuum data compared with the MMB 6.7 GHz CH3OH maser survey, we have constrained the cores already housing massive protostars based on their association with the radiatively pumped 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers
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