5 research outputs found

    An exploration into the occupational identity of women following breast cancer and treatment: A qualitative study

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    Introduction: The number of women surviving after breast cancer is increasing, along with the length of time they are living with the after-effects of treatment. Although the treatment’s effects are known to impact occupational participation, little is known about how breast cancer could affect occupational identity. This study aims to illuminate the lived experience of women long-term after breast cancer treatment through an occupational perspective in order to explore how they perceive their occupational identity. Methods: A qualitative study with semi-structured interviews was conducted with six women, who had all received a diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment for longer than a year. Reflexive Thematic Analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings: Three intertwined themes describe the participants’ experience. (1) ‘Disruptions in daily life and Environmental support’, (2) ‘Be able to do’ and identity, and (3) ‘Doing what matters and is possible’. Findings revealed that the occupational identities of the participants were maintained. Cancer treatment effects appear to impact occupational competence that corresponded to participants’ occupational identities, suggesting difficulties in the order of occupational adaptation. Conclusion: Our findings contribute to understanding the challenges to occupational participation related to the occupational identity of women following breast cancer and treatment

    Occupational participation, stress, anxiety and depression in workers and students from Brazilian universities during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    Abstract Introduction The physical, social and occupational restrictions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic have affected the health and well-being of the world population. Objective To identify the repercussions of the pandemic on the occupational participation of students, lecturers and technicians from three public universities in Northern Brazil, to compare the changes reported by participants in occupational participation before and during the pandemic, and to identify symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress self-reported. Method This is a Cross-sectional, descriptive and comparative study with a quantitative approach. One hundred and ninety-nine (n = 199) participants (students, lecturers and technicians) responded to an online questionnaire, the “Occupational Participation Checklist” and the Anxiety, Stress and Depression Scale (DASS-21). Data analysis were descriptive and also performed by applying the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests. Results During the pandemic, an increase in occupational participation was identified for all participants in domestic activities (p <0.001) and a decrease in work and study face to face (p <0.001). Students reported more symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress when compared to lecturers (p<0.001). Most students did not organise their time to fulfil their occupations with satisfaction. Such difficulties were associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, especially among the student's group (p<0.001). Conclusion This study provided preliminary evidence about differences in occupational participation before and during the Covid-19 pandemic. The organization of time and difficulties in occupational participation were associated to levels of anxiety, depression and stress, especially in the sample of students

    The stiffness of living tissues and its implications for tissue engineering

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    The past 20 years have witnessed ever- growing evidence that the mechanical properties of biological tissues, from nanoscale to macroscale dimensions, are fundamental for cellular behaviour and consequent tissue functionality. This knowledge, combined with previously known biochemical cues, has greatly advanced the field of biomaterial development, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It is now established that approaches to engineer biological tissues must integrate and approximate the mechanics, both static and dynamic, of native tissues. Nevertheless, the literature on the mechanical properties of biological tissues differs greatly in methodology, and the available data are widely dispersed. This Review gathers together the most important data on the stiffness of living tissues and discusses the intricacies of tissue stiffness from a materials perspective, highlighting the main challenges associated with engineering lifelike tissues and proposing a unified view of this as yet unreported topic. Emerging advances that might pave the way for the next decadeâ s take on bioengineered tissue stiffness are also presented, and differences and similarities between tissues in health and disease are discussed, along with various techniques for characterizing tissue stiffness at various dimensions from individual cells to organs.The authors would like to acknowledge financial support from the European Research Council, grant agreement ERC-2012-ADG 20120216-321266 (project ComplexiTE). C.F.G. acknowledges scholarship grant no. PD/BD/135253/2017 from Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT). The authors also thank the peer-reviewers for the constructive comments and suggestions that helped to shape this manuscript

    Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk–outcome associations. With each annual GBD study, we update the GBD CRA to incorporate improved methods, new risks and risk–outcome pairs, and new data on risk exposure levels and risk–outcome associations. Methods We used the CRA framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or groups of risks from 1990 to 2017. This study included 476 risk–outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from 46 749 randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We explored the relationship between development and risk exposure by modelling the relationship between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and risk-weighted exposure prevalence and estimated expected levels of exposure and risk-attributable burden by SDI. Finally, we explored temporal changes in risk-attributable DALYs by decomposing those changes into six main component drivers of change as follows: (1) population growth; (2) changes in population age structures; (3) changes in exposure to environmental and occupational risks; (4) changes in exposure to behavioural risks; (5) changes in exposure to metabolic risks; and (6) changes due to all other factors, approximated as the risk-deleted death and DALY rates, where the risk-deleted rate is the rate that would be observed had we reduced the exposure levels to the TMREL for all risk factors included in GBD 2017. Findings In 2017, 34·1 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 33·3–35·0) deaths and 1·21 billion (1·14–1·28) DALYs were attributable to GBD risk factors. Globally, 61·0% (59·6–62·4) of deaths and 48·3% (46·3–50·2) of DALYs were attributed to the GBD 2017 risk factors. When ranked by risk-attributable DALYs, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) was the leading risk factor, accounting for 10·4 million (9·39–11·5) deaths and 218 million (198–237) DALYs, followed by smoking (7·10 million [6·83–7·37] deaths and 182 million [173–193] DALYs), high fasting plasma glucose (6·53 million [5·23–8·23] deaths and 171 million [144–201] DALYs), high body-mass index (BMI; 4·72 million [2·99–6·70] deaths and 148 million [98·6–202] DALYs), and short gestation for birthweight (1·43 million [1·36–1·51] deaths and 139 million [131–147] DALYs). In total, risk-attributable DALYs declined by 4·9% (3·3–6·5) between 2007 and 2017. In the absence of demographic changes (ie, population growth and ageing), changes in risk exposure and risk-deleted DALYs would have led to a 23·5% decline in DALYs during that period. Conversely, in the absence of changes in risk exposure and risk-deleted DALYs, demographic changes would have led to an 18·6% increase in DALYs during that period. The ratios of observed risk exposure levels to exposure levels expected based on SDI (O/E ratios) increased globally for unsafe drinking water and household air pollution between 1990 and 2017. This result suggests that development is occurring more rapidly than are changes in the underlying risk structure in a population. Conversely, nearly universal declines in O/E ratios for smoking and alcohol use indicate that, for a given SDI, exposure to these risks is declining. In 2017, the leading Level 4 risk factor for age-standardised DALY rates was high SBP in four super-regions: central Europe, eastern Europe, and central Asia; north Africa and Middle East; south Asia; and southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania. The leading risk factor in the high-income super-region was smoking, in Latin America and Caribbean was high BMI, and in sub-Saharan Africa was unsafe sex. O/E ratios for unsafe sex in sub-Saharan Africa were notably high, and those for alcohol use in north Africa and the Middle East were notably low. Interpretation By quantifying levels and trends in exposures to risk factors and the resulting disease burden, this assessment offers insight into where past policy and programme efforts might have been successful and highlights current priorities for public health action. Decreases in behavioural, environmental, and occupational risks have largely offset the effects of population growth and ageing, in relation to trends in absolute burden. Conversely, the combination of increasing metabolic risks and population ageing will probably continue to drive the increasing trends in non-communicable diseases at the global level, which presents both a public health challenge and opportunity. We see considerable spatiotemporal heterogeneity in levels of risk exposure and risk-attributable burden. Although levels of development underlie some of this heterogeneity, O/E ratios show risks for which countries are overperforming or underperforming relative to their level of development. As such, these ratios provide a benchmarking tool to help to focus local decision making. Our findings reinforce the importance of both risk exposure monitoring and epidemiological research to assess causal connections between risks and health outcomes, and they highlight the usefulness of the GBD study in synthesising data to draw comprehensive and robust conclusions that help to inform good policy and strategic health planning.</p