1,049 research outputs found

    Carba-D,L-allal- and -D,L-galactal-derived vinyl N-nosyl aziridines as useful tools for the synthesis of 4-deoxy-4-(N-nosylamino)-2,3-unsaturated-5a-carbasugars

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    The novel carba-D,L-allal- and carba-D,L-galactal-derived vinyl N-nosyl aziridines were prepared and the regio- and stereoselective behavior in opening reactions with O- and N-nucleophiles examined. The carbaglycosylating ability of the novel aziridines, as deduced by the amount of 1,4-addition products (1,4-regioselectivity) obtained in the acid-catalyzed methanolysis taken as a model reaction, is similar or superior to that observed with the corresponding carba-D,L-allal- and -D,L-galactal-derived vinyl epoxides, respectively. In all 1,2- and 1,4-addition products obtained, a –(N-nosylamino) group is regio- and stereoselectively introduced at the C(4) carbon of a 1,2- or 2,3-unsaturated carbasugar, susceptible to further elaborations toward aminocyclitol derivatives. The stereoselective synthesis of the corresponding, enantiomerically pure carba-D,L-allal- and -D,L-galactal-derived vinyl N-acetyl aziridines is also described

    Closest-vector problem and the zero-temperature p-spin landscape for lossy compression

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    We consider a high-dimensional random constrained optimization problem in which a set of binary variables is subjected to a linear system of equations. The cost function is a simple linear cost, measuring the Hamming distance with respect to a reference configuration. Despite its apparent simplicity, this problem exhibits a rich phenomenology. We show that different situations arise depending on the random ensemble of linear systems. When each variable is involved in at most two linear constraints, we show that the problem can be partially solved analytically, in particular we show that upon convergence, the zero-temperature limit of the cavity equations returns the optimal solution. We then study the geometrical properties of more general random ensembles. In particular we observe a range in the density of constraints at which the system enters a glassy phase where the cost function has many minima. Interestingly, the algorithmic performances are only sensitive to another phase transition affecting the structure of configurations allowed by the linear constraints. We also extend our results to variables belonging to GF(q), the Galois field of order q. We show that increasing the value of q allows to achieve a better optimum, which is confirmed by the replica-symmetric cavity method predictions

    CittĂ  della Conciliazione, Grugliasco, Torino, Italy, 2005-2009

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    Pubblicazione del progetto CittĂ  Universitaria della Conciliazione a Grugliasco (TO) nel numero della rivista World Architecture dedicato ai progetti della CittĂ  di Torino

    CittĂ  Universitaria della Conciliazione a Grugliasco (TO)

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    Pubblicazione e testo critico del progetto della CittĂ  Universitaria della Conciliazione contenuto nell'articolo di Davide Tommaso Ferrando," A welcoming space. Sustainability as conciliation between work and family life" nel numero della rivista World Architecture dedicato ai progetti della CittĂ  di Torino

    CittĂ  Universitaria della Conciliazione a Grugliasco

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    Pubblicazione e commento critico del progetto della CittĂ  Universitaria della Conciliazione contenuto nell'editoriale di Zhang Li (vice-direttore) "Soft sustainability: the Torino approach" del numero della rivista World Architecture dedicato alla CittĂ  di Torino

    Microbial assisted phytodepuration for water reclamation: Environmental benefits and threats

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    Climate changes push for water reuse as a priority to counteract water scarcity and minimize water footprint especially in agriculture, one of the highest water consuming human activities. Phytodepuration is indicated as a promising technology for water reclamation, also in the light of its economic and ecological sustainability, and the use of specific bacterial inocula for microbial assisted phytodepuration has been proposed as a further advance for its implementation. Here we provided an overview on the selection and use of plant growth promoting bacteria in Constructed Wetland (CW) systems, showing their advantages in terms of plant growth support and pollutant degradation abilities. Moreover, CWs are also proposed for the removal of emerging organic pollutants like antibiotics from urban wastewaters. We focused on this issue, still debated in the literature, revealing the necessity to deepen the knowledge on the antibiotic resistance spread into the environment in relation to treated wastewater release and reuse. In addition, given the presence in the plant system of microhabitats (e.g. rhizosphere) that are hot spot for Horizontal Gene Transfer, we highlighted the importance of gene exchange to understand if these events can promote the diffusion of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistant bacteria, possibly entering in the food production chain when treated wastewater is used for irrigation. Ideally, this new knowledge will lead to improve the design of phytodepuration systems to maximize the quality and safety of the treated effluents in compliance with the 'One Health' concept

    Tryptophan Metabolism as Source of New Prognostic Biomarkers for FAP Patients

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    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a common inherited form of colorectal cancer (CRC), causes the development of hundreds to thousands of colonic adenomas in the colorectum beginning in early adolescence. In absence of a prophylactic surgery, FAP patients almost inevitably develop CRC by the age of 40 to 50. The lack of valuable prognostic biomarkers for FAP patients makes it difficult to predict when the progression from adenoma to malignant carcinoma occurs. Decreased tryptophan (TRP) plasma levels and increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) enzymatic activities have been associated to tumour progression in CRC. In the present study, we aimed at investigating whether an altered TRP metabolism might also exist in FAP patients. Our results highlighted that plasma levels of TRP and its main catabolites are comparable between FAP patients and healthy subject. On the contrary, FAP patients presented significantly higher TRP levels with respect to high-grade adenoma (ADE) subjects and CRC patients. Obtained data lead us to evaluate IDO1 and TPH1 enzymes activity in the study groups. For both enzymes, it was possible to discriminate correctly between FAP subject and ADE/CRC patients with high sensitivities and specificities. By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the cut-off values of IDO1 and TPH1 enzymatic activities associated to the presence of an active malignant transformation have been calculated as >38 and >5.5, respectively. When these cut-off values are employed, the area under the curve (AUC) is > 0.8 for both, indicating that TRP metabolism in patients with FAP may be used to monitor and predict the tumorigenic evolution

    Fatal systemic toxoplasmosis in a 3-month-old young tibetan goat (Capra hircus)

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    Background: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic infections in both humans and animals. It is a frequent cause of abortion and stillbirth in intermediate hosts, especially sheep and goats but rarely causes fatal clinical form in adult animals. Case presentation: In contrast, the study reports an unusual fatal case of toxoplasmosis in a young goat naturally infected with type II strain of Toxoplasma gondii. A three-month-old female goat was presented with dyspnea and died few days later. Grossly, lungs were firm, edematous and mottled with disseminated whitish areas. Generalized lymphadenopathy was found. The histopathological examination showed necrotic interstitial bronchopneumonia and necrotizing lymphadenitis with intralesional free and clustered within macrophages tachyzoites of T. gondii. DNA extracted from lungs and lymph nodes was positive for T. gondii by a fast qPCR. PCR-RFLP analysis and sequencing of GRA6 gene showed that the isolated strains belonged to type II genotype. Conclusions: This is an unusual report of acute systemic toxoplasmosis caused by the type II strain of T. gondii with a fatal outcome in a young goat

    Arrhythmogenic Calmodulin Mutations Disrupt Intracellular Cardiomyocyte Ca\u3csup\u3e2+\u3c/sup\u3e Regulation by Distinct Mechanisms

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    BACKGROUND: Calmodulin (CaM) mutations have been identified recently in subjects with congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) or catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), but the mechanisms responsible for these divergent arrhythmia-susceptibility syndromes in this context are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that LQTS-associated CaM mutants disrupt Ca2+ homeostasis in developing cardiomyocytes possibly by affecting either late Na current or Ca2+-dependent inactivation of L-type Ca2+ current. METHODS AND RESULTS: We coexpressed CaM mutants with the human cardiac Na channel (NaV1.5) in tsA201 cells, and we used mammalian fetal ventricular cardiomyocytes to investigate LQTS- and CPVT-associated CaM mutations (LQTS- and CPVT-CaM). LQTS-CaM mutants do not consistently affect L-type Na current in heterologous cells or native cardiomyocytes, suggesting that the Na channel does not contribute to LQTS pathogenesis in the context of CaM mutations. LQTS-CaM mutants (D96V, D130G, F142L) impaired Ca2+-dependent inactivation, whereas the CPVT-CaM mutant N54I had no effect on Ca2+-dependent inactivation. LQTS-CaM mutants led to loss of Ca2+-transient entrainment with the rank order from greatest to least effect: CaM-D130G~CaM-D96V\u3e\u3eCaM-F142L. This rank order follows measured Ca2+-CaM affinities for wild-type and mutant CaM. Acute isoproterenol restored entrainment for CaM-130G and CaM-D96V but caused irreversible cytosolic Ca2+ overload for cells expressing a CPVT-CaM mutant. CONCLUSIONS: CaM mutations associated with LQTS may not affect L-type Na+ current but may evoke defective Ca2+-dependent inactivation of L-type Ca2+ current
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