700 research outputs found

    An integrated approach to testing and assessment (IATA) to support grouping and read-across of nanomaterials in aquatic systems

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    Even small changes in physicochemical properties of nanoforms (NFs), can drive differences in their environmental fate and hazard. The large number of new materials being developed means it will not be feasible to test and characterise the fate, behaviour and (eco)toxicity of each individual NF. This is further amplified by transformations of NFs over their lifecycle, changing the processes governing their risk. A common complexity arises from dissolution, where the combined toxicity of the exposure arises from both the solutes and any remaining particles contribution to the overall toxicity of the exposure. For efficient and effective risk assessment, it is the most relevant form of the NF for a given exposure that should be targeted for testing and assessment. In aquatic systems, functional fate processes (including dissolution, dispersion stability and chemical and biological transformations) determine the NF’s exposure relevant form. Whilst transformations in the environment alter the initial properties of an NF, different NFs may follow a shared functional fate pathway and ultimately present a similar fate and hazard profile in the environment. Therefore, these processes may be used to scientifically justify grouping NFs and read-across for specific endpoints from data rich NF(s) to verified members of the group that have not been tested yet. Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) have been used in other regulatory contexts to support the collection and integration of relevant existing information as well as the targeted generation of new data to support grouping and read-across. Here, a new IATA is presented consisting of decision nodes focused on dissolution, dispersion stability, chemical transformations and the relative contribution to toxicity of the particle and dissolved component of the overall exposure. The IATA focuses on the fate of NFs in aquatic systems outside of the body, but it can be considered a template for future assessment of in vivo kinetics, which will require further development. Guidance on tiered testing approaches and thresholds for grouping within each decision node are critically discussed. Worked examples for ecotoxicity of metal oxide NFs in aqueous systems (in microbial communities isolated from soils and for lettuce plants in hydroponic systems) demonstrate successful identification of the exposure relevant form of the NF in these case studies and allows for different grouping of NFs through application of the IATA

    The DUNE Far Detector Vertical Drift Technology, Technical Design Report

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    International audienceDUNE is an international experiment dedicated to addressing some of the questions at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics, including the mystifying preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe. The dual-site experiment will employ an intense neutrino beam focused on a near and a far detector as it aims to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to make high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix parameters, including the CP-violating phase. It will also stand ready to observe supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector implements liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) technology, and combines the many tens-of-kiloton fiducial mass necessary for rare event searches with the sub-centimeter spatial resolution required to image those events with high precision. The addition of a photon detection system enhances physics capabilities for all DUNE physics drivers and opens prospects for further physics explorations. Given its size, the far detector will be implemented as a set of modules, with LArTPC designs that differ from one another as newer technologies arise. In the vertical drift LArTPC design, a horizontal cathode bisects the detector, creating two stacked drift volumes in which ionization charges drift towards anodes at either the top or bottom. The anodes are composed of perforated PCB layers with conductive strips, enabling reconstruction in 3D. Light-trap-style photon detection modules are placed both on the cryostat's side walls and on the central cathode where they are optically powered. This Technical Design Report describes in detail the technical implementations of each subsystem of this LArTPC that, together with the other far detector modules and the near detector, will enable DUNE to achieve its physics goals

    The DUNE Far Detector Vertical Drift Technology, Technical Design Report

    No full text
    International audienceDUNE is an international experiment dedicated to addressing some of the questions at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics, including the mystifying preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe. The dual-site experiment will employ an intense neutrino beam focused on a near and a far detector as it aims to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to make high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix parameters, including the CP-violating phase. It will also stand ready to observe supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector implements liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) technology, and combines the many tens-of-kiloton fiducial mass necessary for rare event searches with the sub-centimeter spatial resolution required to image those events with high precision. The addition of a photon detection system enhances physics capabilities for all DUNE physics drivers and opens prospects for further physics explorations. Given its size, the far detector will be implemented as a set of modules, with LArTPC designs that differ from one another as newer technologies arise. In the vertical drift LArTPC design, a horizontal cathode bisects the detector, creating two stacked drift volumes in which ionization charges drift towards anodes at either the top or bottom. The anodes are composed of perforated PCB layers with conductive strips, enabling reconstruction in 3D. Light-trap-style photon detection modules are placed both on the cryostat's side walls and on the central cathode where they are optically powered. This Technical Design Report describes in detail the technical implementations of each subsystem of this LArTPC that, together with the other far detector modules and the near detector, will enable DUNE to achieve its physics goals

    The DUNE Far Detector Vertical Drift Technology, Technical Design Report