4,251 research outputs found

    Studies in a transonic rotor aerodynamics and noise facility

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    The design, construction and testing of a transonic rotor aerodynamics and noise facility was undertaken, using a rotating arm blade element support technique. This approach provides a research capability intermediate between that of a stationary element in a moving flow and that of a complete rotating blade system, and permits the acoustic properties of blade tip elements to be studied in isolation. This approach is an inexpensive means of obtaining data at high subsonic and transonic tip speeds on the effect of variations in tip geometry. The facility may be suitable for research on broad band noise and discrete noise in addition to high-speed noise. Initial tests were conducted over the Mach number range 0.3 to 0.93 and confirmed the adequacy of the acoustic treatment used in the facility to avoid reflection from the enclosure

    Design Microprotests

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    This essay considers three design projects as microprotests. Reflecting on the ways design practice can generate spaces, sites and methods of protest, we use the concept of microprotest to consider how we, as designers ourselves, can protest by scaling down, focussing, slowing down and paying attention to the edges of our practice. Design microprotest is a form of design activism that is always collaborative, takes place within a community, and involves careful translation of a political conversation. While microprotest can manifest in any design discipline, in this essay we focus on visual communication design. In particular we consider the deep, reflexive practice of listening as the foundation of microprotests in visual communication design. While small in scale and fleeting in duration, these projects express rich and deep political engagements through conversations that create and maintain safe spaces. While many design theorists (Julier; Fuad-Luke; Clarke; Irwin et al.) have done important work to contextualise activist design as a broad movement with overlapping branches (social design, community design, eco-design, participatory design, critical design, and transition design etc.), the scope of our study takes ‘micro’ as a starting point. We focus on the kind of activism that takes shape in moments of careful design; these are moments when designers move politically, rather than necessarily within political movements. These microprotests respond to community needs through design more than they articulate a broad activist design movement. As such, the impacts of these microprotests often go unnoticed outside of the communities within which they take place. We propose, and test in this essay, a mode of analysis for design microprotests that takes design activism as a starting point but pays more attention to community and translation than designers and their global reach. In his analysis of design activism, Julier proposes “four possible conceptual tactics for the activist designer that are also to be found in particular qualities in the mainstream design culture and economy” (Julier, Introduction 149). We use two of these tactics to begin exploring a selection of attributes common to design microprotests: temporality – which describes the way that speed, slowness, progress and incompletion are dealt with; and territorialisation – which describes the scale at which responsibility and impact is conceived (227). In each of three projects to which we apply these tactics, one of us had a role as a visual communicator. As such, the research is framed by the knowledge creating paradigm described by Jonas as “research through design”. We also draw on other conceptualisations of design activism, and the rich design literature that has emerged in recent times to challenge the colonial legacies of design studies (Schultz; Tristan et al.; Escobar). Some analyses of design activism already focus on the micro or the minor. For example, in their design of social change within organisations as an experimental and iterative process, Lensjkold, Olander and Hasse refer to Deleuze and Guattari’s minoritarian: “minor design activism is ‘a position in co-design engagements that strives to continuously maintain experimentation” (67). Like minor activism, design microprotests are linked to the continuous mobilisation of actors and networks in processes of collective experimentation. However microprotests do not necessarily focus on organisational change. Rather, they create new (and often tiny) spaces of protest within which new voices can be heard and different kinds of listening can be done. In the first of our three cases, we discuss a representation of transdisciplinary listening. This piece of visual communication is a design microprotest in itself. This section helps to frame what we mean by a safe space by paying attention to the listening mode of communication. In the next sections we explore temporality and territorialisation through the design microprotests Just Spaces which documents the collective imagining of safe places for LBPQ (Lesbian, Bisexual, Pansexual, and Queer) women and non-binary identities through a series of graphic objects and Conversation Piece, a book written, designed and published over three days as a proposition for a collective future

    Research for the farmer : annual report of the Missouri Experiment Station, 1946-1947

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    A theory-based approach to understanding condom errors and problems reported by men attending an STI clinic

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    The official published version can be accessed from the link below - Copyright @ 2008 Springer VerlagWe employed the information–motivation–behavioral skills (IMB) model to guide an investigation of correlates for correct condom use among 278 adult (18–35 years old) male clients attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. An anonymous questionnaire aided by a CD-recording of the questions was administered. Linear Structural Relations Program was used to conduct path analyses of the hypothesized IMB model. Parameter estimates showed that while information did not directly affect behavioral skills, it did have a direct (negative) effect on condom use errors. Motivation had a significant direct (positive) effect on behavioral skills and a significant indirect (positive) effect on condom use errors through behavioral skills. Behavioral skills had a direct (negative) effect on condom use errors. Among men attending a public STI clinic, these findings suggest brief, clinic-based, safer sex programs for men who have sex with women should incorporate activities to convey correct condom use information, instill motivation to use condoms correctly, and directly enhance men’s behavioral skills for correct use of condoms

    Agricultural research in Missouri : annual report of the Missouri Experiment Station, 1945-1946

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    Teamwork of science and agriculture : annual report of the Missouri Experiment Station, 1944-1945

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    Deformation of vortex patches by boundaries

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    The deformation of two-dimensional vortex patches in the vicinity of fluid boundaries is investigated. The presence of a boundary causes an initially circular patch of uniform vorticity to deform. Sufficiently far away from the boundary, the deformed shape is well approximated by an ellipse. This leading order elliptical deformation is investigated via the elliptic moment model of Melander, Zabusky & Styczek [M. V. Melander, N. J. Zabusky & A. S. Styczek, J. Fluid. Mech., 167, 95 (1986)]. When the boundary is straight, the centre of the elliptic patch remains at a constant distance from the boundary, and the motion is integrable. Furthermore, since the straining flow acting on the patch is constant in time, the problem is that of an elliptic vortex patch in constant strain, which was analysed by Kida [S. Kida, J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 50, 3517 (1981)]. For more complicated boundary shapes, such as a square corner, the motion is no longer integrable. Instead, there is an adiabatic invariant for the motion. This adiabatic invariant arises due to the separation in times scales between the relatively rapid time scale associated with the rotation of the patch and the slower time scale associated with the self-advection of the patch along the boundary. The interaction of a vortex patch with a circular island is also considered. Without a background flow, conservation of angular impulse implies that the motion is again integrable. The addition of an irrotational flow past the island can drive the patch towards the boundary, leading to the possibility of large deformations and breakup.Comment: 19 pages, 16 figure

    Anticipating Stream Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change: Toward Predictions That Incorporate Effects via Land–Water Linkages

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    Climate change (CC) is projected to increase the frequency and severity of natural disturbances (wildfires, insect outbreaks, and debris flows) and shift distributions of terrestrial ecosystems on a global basis. Although such terrestrial changes may affect stream ecosystems, they have not been incorporated into predictions of stream responses to CC. Here, we introduce a conceptual framework to evaluate to what extent responses of streams to CC will be driven by not only changes in thermal and hydrologic regimes, but also alterations of terrestrial processes. We focused on forested water-sheds of western North America because this region is projected to experience CC-induced alteration of terrestrial processes. This provided a backdrop for investigating interactive effects of climate and terrestrial responses on streams. Because stream responses to terrestrial processes have been well-studied in contexts largely independent of CC research, we synthesized this knowledge to demonstrate how CC-induced alterations of terrestrial ecosystems may affect streams. Our synthesis indicated that altered terrestrial processes will change terrestrial–aquatic linkages and autotrophic production, potentially yielding greater sensitivity of streams to CC than would be expected based on shifts in temperature and precipitation regime alone. Despite uncertainties that currently constrain predictions regarding stream responses to these additional pathways of change, this synthesis highlighted broader effects of CC that require additional research. Based on widespread evidence that CC is linked to changing terrestrial processes, we conclude that accurate predictions of CC effects on streams may be coupled to the accuracy of predictions for long-term changes in terrestrial ecosystems

    Integrating Interactive Web-Based Technology to Assess Adherence and Clinical Outcomes in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease

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    Research indicates that the quality of the adherence assessment is one of the best predictors for improving clinical outcomes. Newer technologies represent an opportunity for developing high quality standardized assessments to assess clinical outcomes such as patient experience of care but have not been tested systematically in pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD). The goal of the current study was to pilot an interactive web-based tool, the Take-Charge Program, to assess adherence to clinic visits and hydroxyurea (HU), barriers to adherence, solutions to overcome these barriers, and clinical outcomes in 43 patients with SCD age 6–21 years. Results indicate that the web-based tool was successfully integrated into the clinical setting while maintaining high patient satisfaction (>90%). The tool provided data consistent with the medical record, staff report, and/or clinical lab data. Participants reported that forgetting and transportation were major barriers for adherence to both clinic attendance and HU. A greater number of self-reported barriers (P < .01) and older age (P < .05) were associated with poorer clinic attendance and HU adherence. In summary, the tool represents an innovative approach to integrate newer technology to assess adherence and clinical outcomes for pediatric patients with SCD
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