419 research outputs found

    Evolution, nucleosynthesis and yields of AGB stars at different metallicities (III): intermediate mass models, revised low mass models and the ph-FRUITY interface

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    We present a new set of models for intermediate mass AGB stars (4.0, 5.0 and, 6.0 Msun) at different metallicities (-2.15<=Fe/H]<=+0.15). This integrates the existing set of models for low mass AGB stars (1.3<=M/M<=3.0) already included in the FRUITY database. We describe the physical and chemical evolution of the computed models from the Main Sequence up to the end of the AGB phase. Due to less efficient third dredge up episodes, models with large core masses show modest surface enhancements. The latter is due to the fact that the interpulse phases are short and, then, Thermal Pulses are weak. Moreover, the high temperature at the base of the convective envelope prevents it to deeply penetrate the radiative underlying layers. Depending on the initial stellar mass, the heavy elements nucleosynthesis is dominated by different neutron sources. In particular, the s-process distributions of the more massive models are dominated by the \nean~reaction, which is efficiently activated during Thermal Pulses. At low metallicities, our models undergo hot bottom burning and hot third dredge up. We compare our theoretical final core masses to available white dwarf observations. Moreover, we quantify the weight that intermediate mass models have on the carbon stars luminosity function. Finally, we present the upgrade of the FRUITY web interface, now also including the physical quantities of the TP-AGB phase of all the models included in the database (ph-FRUITY).Comment: Accepted for publication on ApJ

    s-Process in Low Metallicity Stars. I. Theoretical Predictions

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    A large sample of carbon enhanced metal-poor stars enriched in s-process elements (CEMP-s) have been observed in the Galactic halo. These stars of low mass (M ~ 0.9 Msun) are located on the main-sequence or the red giant phase, and do not undergo third dredge-up (TDU) episodes. The s-process enhancement is most plausibly due to accretion in a binary system from a more massive companion when on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase (now a white dwarf). In order to interpret the spectroscopic observations, updated AGB models are needed to follow in detail the s-process nucleosynthesis. We present nucleosynthesis calculations based on AGB stellar models obtained with FRANEC (Frascati Raphson-Newton Evolutionary Code) for low initial stellar masses and low metallicities. For a given metallicity, a wide spread in the abundances of the s-process elements is obtained by varying the amount of 13C and its profile in the pocket, where the 13C(a, n)16O reaction is the major neutron source, releasing neutrons in radiative conditions during the interpulse phase. We account also for the second neutron source 22Ne(a, n)25Mg, partially activated during convective thermal pulses. We discuss the surface abundance of elements from carbon to bismuth, for AGB models of initial masses M = 1.3 -- 2 Msun, low metallicities ([Fe/H] from -1 down to -3.6) and for different 13C-pockets efficiencies. In particular we analyse the relative behaviour of the three s-process peaks: light-s (ls at magic neutron number N = 50), heavy-s (hs at N = 82) and lead (N = 126). Two s-process indicators, [hs/ls] and [Pb/hs], are needed in order to characterise the s-process distribution. In the online material, we provide a set of data tables with surface predictions. ...Comment: 31 pages, 15 figures + 6 online material, 10 table

    The Origin of Fluorine: Abundances in AGB Carbon Stars Revisited

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    Revised spectroscopic parameters for the HF molecule and a new CN line list in the 2.3 mu region have been recently available, allowing a revision of the F content in AGB stars. AGB carbon stars are the only observationally confirmed sources of fluorine. Nowadays there is not a consensus on the relevance of AGB stars in its Galactic chemical evolution. The aim of this article is to better constrain the contribution of these stars with a more accurate estimate of their fluorine abundances. Using new spectroscopic tools and LTE spectral synthesis, we redetermine fluorine abundances from several HF lines in the K-band in a sample of Galactic and extragalactic AGB carbon stars of spectral types N, J and SC spanning a wide range of metallicities. On average, the new derived fluorine abundances are systematically lower by 0.33 dex with respect to previous determinations. This may derive from a combination of the lower excitation energies of the HF lines and the larger macroturbulence parameters used here as well as from the new adopted CN line list. Yet, theoretical nucleosynthesis models in AGB stars agree with the new fluorine determinations at solar metallicities. At low metallicities, an agreement between theory and observations can be found by handling in a different way the radiative/convective interface at the base of the convective envelope. New fluorine spectroscopic measurements agree with theoretical models at low and at solar metallicity. Despite this, complementary sources are needed to explain its observed abundance in the solar neighbourhood.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures, accepted in A&

    Molecular opacities for low-mass metal-poor AGB stars undergoing the Third Dredge Up

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    The concomitant overabundances of C, N and s-process elements are commonly ascribed to the complex interplay of nucleosynthesis, mixing and mass loss taking place in Asymptotic Giant Branch stars. At low metallicity, the enhancement of C and/or N may be up to 1000 times larger than the original iron content and significantly affects the stellar structure and its evolution. For this reason, the interpretation of the already available and still growing amount of data concerning C-rich metal-poor stars belonging to our Galaxy as well as to dwarf spheroidal galaxies would require reliable AGB stellar models for low and very low metallicities. In this paper we address the question of calculation and use of appropriate opacity coefficients, which take into account the C enhancement caused by the third dredge up. A possible N enhancement, caused by the cool bottom process or by the engulfment of protons into the convective zone generated by a thermal pulse and the subsequent huge third dredge up, is also considered. Basing on up-to-date stellar models, we illustrate the changes induced by the use of these opacity on the physical and chemical properties expected for these stars.Comment: 23 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    CEMP-s and CEMP-s/r stars: last update

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    We provide an updated discussion of the sample of CEMP-s and CEMP-s/r stars collected from the literature. Observations are compared with the theoretical nucleosynthesis models of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars presented by Bisterzo et al. (2010, 2011, 2012), in the light of the most recent spectroscopic results.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figures, New advances in stellar physics: from microscopic to macroscopic processes, May 27-31 2013, Roscoff, France, EDP Science, EAS Publications Series, in pres
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