41 research outputs found

    The Fully Automated and Self-Contained Operations Paradigm of the CSIM Mission

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    The Compact Spectral Irradiance Monitor (CSIM) CubeSat Mission has been collecting solar spectral irradiance (SSI) data for over two years, contributing to 40+ years of multi-mission SSI data collection. CSIM utilizes a fully automated and self-contained operations paradigm developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). LASP efficiently performs the entire operations workflow for CSIM, from planning through data processing, which nominally requires only 15 minutes of staffed operations support per week. Mission operations students at LASP are responsible for the entire planning process. They query for ground station contacts and solar observation times which are input into a suite of software tools to create the onboard stored command table and the weekly uplink plan. An automated ground station script then configures for the upcoming CSIM contacts by querying Space-Track for overflights. Within 2 minutes from the start of a pass, the script commands the UHF or S-Band antenna to point at the spacecraft, brings up the command-and-control software, and performs an initial health-and-safety check upon AOS (acquisition of signal). Automated command scripts then configure the spacecraft and upload the plan using command success logic checks. This ensures that all commands are sent and accepted by the spacecraft in-order, and without overwriting any non-expired scheduling slots. The week\u27s worth of commands is loaded within a few passes, and science collection typically starts soon after. Ground automation will detect major anomalies and notify the flight control team in real-time, allowing the operators to recover the spacecraft on the next contact and prepare a new activity plan for autonomous upload. Additionally, ground automation queries CSIM health and safety data and sends telemetry trends to the operations team for daily, weekly, and monthly health and safety checks. CSIM science data is downlinked during 1 or 2 passes per day via the S-band antenna. This data is processed twice per day via an automated data processing pipeline which requires no regular human intervention. The self-contained and automated nature of the data processing pipeline ensures that LASP scientists can access CSIM data within a few hours of being received on the ground. We discuss how this efficient single-mission, self-contained operations paradigm will be expanded to support multiple missions and external customers in the future

    SENSEI: First Direct-Detection Constraints on sub-GeV Dark Matter from a Surface Run

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    The Sub-Electron-Noise Skipper CCD Experimental Instrument (SENSEI) uses the recently developed Skipper-CCD technology to search for electron recoils from the interaction of sub-GeV dark matter particles with electrons in silicon. We report first results from a prototype SENSEI detector, which collected 0.019 gram-days of commissioning data above ground at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. These commissioning data are sufficient to set new direct-detection constraints for dark matter particles with masses between ~500 keV and 4 MeV. Moreover, since these data were taken on the surface, they disfavor previously allowed strongly interacting dark matter particles with masses between ~500 keV and a few hundred MeV. We discuss the implications of these data for several dark matter candidates, including one model proposed to explain the anomalously large 21-cm signal observed by the EDGES Collaboration. SENSEI is the first experiment dedicated to the search for electron recoils from dark matter, and these results demonstrate the power of the Skipper-CCD technology for dark matter searches.Comment: 5 pages + references, 4 figures, 1 table. V2 has additional references and minor clarifications. Published in PR

    SENSEI: Characterization of Single-Electron Events Using a Skipper-CCD

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    We use a science-grade Skipper Charge Coupled Device (Skipper-CCD) operating in a low-radiation background environment to develop a semi-empirical model that characterizes the origin of single-electron events in CCDs. We identify, separate, and quantify three independent contributions to the single-electron events, which were previously bundled together and classified as ``dark counts'': dark current, amplifier light, and spurious charge. We measure a dark current, which depends on exposure, of (5.89+-0.77)x10^-4 e-/pix/day, and an unprecedentedly low spurious charge contribution of (1.52+-0.07)x10^-4 e-/pix, which is exposure-independent. In addition, we provide a technique to study events produced by light emitted from the amplifier, which allows the detector's operation to be optimized to minimize this effect to a level below the dark-current contribution. Our accurate characterization of the single-electron events allows one to greatly extend the sensitivity of experiments searching for dark matter or coherent neutrino scattering. Moreover, an accurate understanding of the origin of single-electron events is critical to further progress in ongoing R&D efforts of Skipper and conventional CCDs.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures, 4 table

    Results from a Fermilab neutrino beam dump experiment

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    The flux of prompt neutrinos from a beam dump has been measured in an experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (E613). Assuming that the charm production has a linear dependence on atomic number and varies as (1−‖×‖)5 e−2mT, a model dependent cross section of 27±5μb/nucleon can be derived. For neutrino energies greater than 20 GeV, the flux of electron neutrinos with respect to muon neutrinos is 0.78±0.19. For neutrinos with energy greater than 30 GeV and p⟂ greater than 0.2, the flux of ν̄u compared to νμ is 0.96±0.22.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/87363/2/100_1.pd

    Prompt Neutrino Results from Fermi Lab

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    Results from a Fermi lab experiment to study prompt neutrino production are presented. Assuming the prompt neutrinos come from the decay of charmed mesons we find a total DD production cross section of approx. 20 μb/nucleon, in good agreement with previous CERN results. We find a ν/ν ratio and a νe/νμ of approx. 1.0. The energy and pT spectra of the prompt neutrinos are consistent with those expected from DD production. Limits on the production of supersymmetric particles have also been obtained.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/87356/2/262_1.pd

    US Cosmic Visions: New Ideas in Dark Matter 2017: Community Report

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    This white paper summarizes the workshop "U.S. Cosmic Visions: New Ideas in Dark Matter" held at University of Maryland on March 23-25, 2017.Comment: 102 pages + reference

    Evaluation of Helicobacter hepaticus bacterial shedding in fostered and sex-segregated C57BL/6 mice

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    Neonatal fostering has been evaluated as a means of eliminating Helicobacter hepaticus infection in laboratory mouse colonies. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate cross-fostering of neonatal C57BL/6 pups from experimentally infected dams after male-absent parturition and to determine the effects of sex and housing strategy on H. hepaticus populations. Approximately 20 C57BL/6 mice (age, 1 to 4 days) were fostered daily. In all fostered mice, fecal samples collected at 21 and 42 days of age and cecal samples collected at 42 days of age tested negative for H. hepaticus by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Our results demonstrate that removal of the male prior to parturition extends the fostering period to yield Helicobacter-free mice. In a second experiment, the effects of time of infection, housing strategy, and sex on fecal H. hepaticus shedding and cecal colonization were evaluated. Neither time nor housing strategy affected bacterial shedding. In contrast, fecal and cecal bacterial loads were higher in male mice versus female mice. A novel predictive algorithm was developed to predict cecal bacterial colonization levels in light of fecal bacterial loads. Our findings likely will prove useful in Helicobacter eradication efforts and in studies designed to further elucidate the role of H. hepaticus in disease

    SENSEI: Direct-Detection Constraints on Sub-GeV Dark Matter from a Shallow Underground Run Using a Prototype Skipper CCD

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    We present new direct-detection constraints on eV-to-GeV dark matter interacting with electrons using a prototype detector of the Sub-Electron-Noise Skipper-CCD Experimental Instrument. The results are based on data taken in the MINOS cavern at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We focus on data obtained with two distinct readout strategies. For the first strategy, we read out the Skipper CCD continuously, accumulating an exposure of 0.177 g day. While we observe no events containing three or more electrons, we find a large one- and two-electron background event rate, which we attribute to spurious events induced by the amplifier in the Skipper-CCD readout stage. For the second strategy, we take five sets of data in which we switch off all amplifiers while exposing the Skipper CCD for 120 ks, and then read out the data through the best prototype amplifier. We find a one-electron event rate of (3.51±0.10)×10^{-3}  events/pixel/day, which is almost 2 orders of magnitude lower than the one-electron event rate observed in the continuous-readout data, and a two-electron event rate of (3.18_{-0.55}^{+0.86})×10^{-5}  events/pixel/day. We again observe no events containing three or more electrons, for an exposure of 0.069 g day. We use these data to derive world-leading constraints on dark matter-electron scattering for masses between 500 keV and 5 MeV, and on dark-photon dark matter being absorbed by electrons for a range of masses below 12.4 eV
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