566 research outputs found


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    The aim of this study was to identify the optimum shoe mass that maximizes ball velocity in a soccer instep penalty kick. Two players performed 20–30 maximum-effort penalty kicks while wearing football shoes with lead weights attached to the base of the shoe (total mass: 0.26 – 0.81 kg). The kicks were recorded by a video camera at 100 Hz and a biomechanical analysis was conducted to obtain measures of ball projection velocity and kinematics of the kicking leg. We found that ball velocity was insensitive to shoe mass (at least for the range of shoe mass tested). An important contributing factor to the observed relationship was that the velocity of the kicking foot at ball impact decreased as the mass of the shoe increased. Our result indicates that players should not change their shoes before taking a penalty kick

    Lactobacillus fermentum (PCCÂź) supplementation and gastrointestinal and respiratory-tract illness symptoms: a randomised control trial in athletes

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    BACKGROUND Probiotics purportedly reduce symptoms of gastrointestinal and upper respiratory-tract illness by modulating commensal microflora. Preventing and reducing symptoms of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness are the primary reason that dietary supplementation with probiotics are becoming increasingly popular with healthy active individuals. There is a paucity of data regarding the effectiveness of probiotics in this cohort. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a probiotic on faecal microbiology, self-reported illness symptoms and immunity in healthy well trained individuals. METHODS Competitive cyclists (64 males and 35 females; age 35 ± 9 and 36 ± 9 y, VO2max 56 ± 6 and 52 ± 6 ml.kg-1.min-1, mean ± SD) were randomised to either probiotic (minimum 1 × 109 Lactobacillus fermentum (PCCÂź) per day) or placebo treatment for 11 weeks in a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. The outcome measures were faecal L. fermentum counts, self-reported symptoms of illness and serum cytokines. RESULTS Lactobacillus numbers increased 7.7-fold (90% confidence limits 2.1- to 28-fold) more in males on the probiotic, while there was an unclear 2.2-fold (0.2- to 18-fold) increase in females taking the probiotic. The number and duration of mild gastrointestinal symptoms were ~2-fold greater in the probiotic group. However, there was a substantial 0.7 (0.2 to 1.2) of a scale step reduction in the severity of gastrointestinal illness at the mean training load in males, which became more pronounced as training load increased. The load (duration×severity) of lower respiratory illness symptoms was less by a factor of 0.31 (99%CI; 0.07 to 0.96) in males taking the probiotic compared with placebo but increased by a factor of 2.2 (0.41 to 27) in females. Differences in use of cold and flu medication mirrored these symptoms. The observed effects on URTI had too much uncertainty for a decisive outcome. There were clear reductions in the magnitude of acute exercise-induced changes in some cytokines. CONCLUSION L. fermentum may be a useful nutritional adjunct for healthy exercising males. However, uncertainty in the effects of supplementation on URTI and on symptoms in females needs to be resolved. TRIAL REGISTRATION The trial was registered in the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12611000006943).The study was funded by Christian Hansen A/S, Probiomics and the Australian Institute of Sport

    Modulation of Allergic Inflammation in the Nasal Mucosa of Allergic Rhinitis Sufferers With Topical Pharmaceutical Agents

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    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic upper respiratory disease estimated to affect between 10 and 40% of the worldwide population. The mechanisms underlying AR are highly complex and involve multiple immune cells, mediators, and cytokines. As such, the development of a single drug to treat allergic inflammation and/or symptoms is confounded by the complexity of the disease pathophysiology. Complete avoidance of allergens that trigger AR symptoms is not possible and without a cure, the available therapeutic options are typically focused on achieving symptomatic relief. Topical therapies offer many advantages over oral therapies, such as delivering greater concentrations of drugs to the receptor sites at the source of the allergic inflammation and the reduced risk of systemic side effects. This review describes the complex pathophysiology of AR and identifies the mechanism(s) of action of topical treatments including antihistamines, steroids, anticholinergics, decongestants and chromones in relation to AR pathophysiology. Following the literature review a discussion on the future therapeutic strategies for AR treatment is provided

    Procedure for the fine delay adjustment of the CMS tracker

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    One of the crucial aspects of the commissioning of the CMS silicon tracker will be the absolute timing adjustment of each module, to accommodate both delays introduced by the hardware configuration and effects due to the time of flight of particles. The objective is to be optimally synchronized with the bunch-crossing to maximize the efficiency while minimizing the number of remnant hits from the adjacent bunch-crossings. In the present note, a procedure to reach that goal is studied. Monte Carlo studies as well as the analysis of data from the commissioning of the detector are used to assess the time needed and the resolution that can be achieved. Critical aspects are discussed, and results from the first implementation are presented

    Probiotics, Anticipation Stress, and the Acute Immune Response to Night Shift

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    IntroductionSleep disturbance and sleep disruption are associated with chronic, low grade inflammation and may underpin a range of chronic diseases in night shift workers. Through modulation of the intestinal microbiota, probiotic supplements may moderate the effects of sleep disruption on the immune system. The aim of this study was to examine 14 days of daily probiotic supplementation on the acute response of acute phase proteins and immune markers to sleep disruption associated with night shift work (Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: 12617001552370).MethodsIndividuals (mean age 41 ± 11 yrs; 74% female) performing routine night shift were randomly assigned to a probiotic group (1 × 1010 colony forming units (CFU) Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 or 1 × 1010 CFU Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis UABla-12) or placebo (n= 29 per group). Participants undertook a 14-day supplementation period that coincided with a period of no night shifts followed by two consecutive night shifts. Blood samples were collected prior to the start of supplementation (V1), prior to commencing the first night shift (V2), after the first night shift (V3) and after the second night shift (V4). Serum was assessed for markers of stress (cortisol), acute phase response (C reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, pentraxin), adhesion markers (serum E-selectin, mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1), and serum cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1ra, IL-1ÎČ, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10). Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a Fitbit activity tracker.ResultsThe groups were well balanced on key markers and the probiotic strains were well tolerated. The 14-day supplementation period that coincided with typical night-day sleep-wake cycles leading up to night shift (V1 to V2) was associated with significant changes in the placebo group in the concentration of serum cortisol (p = 0.01), pentraxin (p = 0.001), MAdCAM-1 (p = 0.001), and IL-1ra (p=0.03). In contrast, probiotic supplementation moderated changes in these serum markers from V1 to V2. No significant interaction effects (time by group) were observed for the serum markers prior to and after night shift work following probiotic supplementation due to the substantial changes in the serum markers that occurred during the normal sleep period from V1 to V2.ConclusionsProbiotics may moderate the effects of anticipatory stress on the immune system in the lead up to night shift

    Does a 10-valent pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine prevent respiratory exacerbations in children with recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis, chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis: protocol for a randomised c

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    BackgroundRecurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB), chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis are characterised by a chronic wet cough and are important causes of childhood respiratory morbidity globally. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most commonly associated pathogens. As respiratory exacerbations impair quality of life and may be associated with disease progression, we will determine if the novel 10-valent pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) reduces exacerbations in these children. MethodsA multi-centre, parallel group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial in tertiary paediatric centres from three Australian cities is planned. Two hundred six children aged 18 months to 14 years with recurrent PBB, CSLD or bronchiectasis will be randomised to receive either two doses of PHiD-CV or control meningococcal (ACYW135) conjugate vaccine 2 months apart and followed for 12 months after the second vaccine dose. Randomisation will be stratified by site, age (<6 years and ≥6 years) and aetiology (recurrent PBB or CSLD/bronchiectasis). Clinical histories, respiratory status (including spirometry in children aged ≥6 years), nasopharyngeal and saliva swabs, and serum will be collected at baseline and at 2, 3, 8 and 14 months post-enrolment. Local and systemic reactions will be recorded on daily diaries for 7 and 30 days, respectively, following each vaccine dose and serious adverse events monitored throughout the trial. Fortnightly, parental contact will help record respiratory exacerbations. The primary outcome is the incidence of respiratory exacerbations in the 12 months following the second vaccine dose. Secondary outcomes include: nasopharyngeal carriage of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae vaccine and vaccine- related serotypes; systemic and mucosal immune responses to H. influenzae proteins and S. pneumoniae vaccine and vaccine-related serotypes; impact upon lung function in children aged ≥6 years; and vaccine safety. DiscussionAs H. influenzae is the most common bacterial pathogen associated with these chronic respiratory diseases in children, a novel pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that also impacts upon H. influenzae and helps prevent respiratory exacerbations would assist clinical management with potential short- and long-term health benefits. Our study will be the first to assess vaccine efficacy targeting H. influenzae in children with recurrent PBB, CSLD and bronchiectasis

    Potential clinical efficacy of the 10-valent pneumococcal-Protein D conjugate vaccine in children with chronic suppurative lung diseases: A double-blind randomised controlled trial

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    Background ‱ Chronic suppurative lung diseases (CSLD) in children are important causes of morbidity and recurrent acute exacerbations are associated with long term lung function decline. ‱ Non-­‐typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) and S. pneumoniae are commonly isolated from the lower airways of both children and adults with CSLD. ‱ The potential clinical impact of a non-­‐typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) vaccine in children with CSLD has not been investigated. ‱ We aimed to determine the clinical efficacy of the 10-­‐valent pneumococcal-­‐Protein D conjugate vaccine (10vPHiD-­‐CV) in children aged 18-­‐months to <18-­‐years with CSLD (Immunogenicity data are presented in Poster xxx). Primary clinical objective. ‱ Determine the efficacy of 10vPHiD-­‐CV in reducing the incidence of acute exacerbations in the 12-­‐months following the 2nd dose of study vaccine. Secondary clinical objectives. ‱ Determine the efficacy of 10vPHiD-­‐CV in reducing the incidence of any parent/carer-­‐reported respiratory symptoms in the 12 months following the second dose of study vaccine. ‱ Determine the efficacy of 10vPHiD-­‐CV in reducing antibiotic use in the 12 months following the second dose of study vaccine

    The clinical, immunological and microbiological impact of the 10-valent pneumococcal-Protein D conjugate vaccine in children with recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis, chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis: A multi-centre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

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    We aimed to determine the efficacy of the 10-valent pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in children aged 18-months to <18-years with recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis (rPBB), chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) or bronchiectasis. In a multi-centre, double-blind randomised controlled trial, children received two doses, 2-months apart of the 10vPHiD-CV or quadrivalent meningococcal-ACYW135 conjugate vaccine. Active surveillance for acute exacerbations, respiratory symptoms and antibiotic use was undertaken through to 12-months after the second vaccine dose (clinical cohort only). Serum, saliva and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected to measure immunological and microbiological effects (immunology cohort). Between December 2012 and August 2015, 62 children were enrolled onto the clinical protocol (1 excluded from clinical analyses due to unblinding), while 74 contributed to the immunology cohort (overall mean age = 6.8-years (standard deviation = 3.7), 42 (56.8%) male). The absolute risk difference comparing the 10vPHiD-CV group (n = 31 children) to the MenACYW135 group (n = 30 children) for acute exacerbations was -0.5 exacerbations/100-weeks at risk (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.0, 0.9). Compared to the MenACYW135 group, children who received the 10vPHiD-CV were less likely to have respiratory symptoms in each fortnight of surveillance (incidence density ratio (IDR) 0.82, 95%CI 0.61, 1.10) and required fewer short-course (<14-days duration) antibiotics (IDR 0.81, 95% CI 0.61, 1.09). The vaccine was immunogenic and no serious adverse events related to the vaccine were reported. In conclusion, 10vPHiD-CV might have a future role in managing children with rPBB, CSLD and bronchiectasis, but larger multicentre trials are needed to confirm or refute findings from this preliminary study

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton–proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript −1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio