54 research outputs found

    Examining the effect of state anxiety on compensatory and strategic adjustments in the planning of goal-directed aiming

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    The anxiety-perceptual-motor performance relationship may be enriched by investigations involving discrete manual responses due to the definitive demarcation of planning and control processes, which comprise the early and late portions of movement, respectively. To further examine the explanatory power of self-focus and distraction theories, we explored the potential of anxiety causing changes to movement planning that accommodate for anticipated negative effects in online control. As a result, we posed two hypotheses where anxiety causes performers to initially undershoot the target and enable more time to use visual feedback (‚Äúplay-it-safe‚ÄĚ), or fire a ballistic reach to cover a greater distance without later undertaking online control (‚Äúgo-for-it‚ÄĚ). Participants were tasked with an upper-limb movement to a single target under counter-balanced instructions to execute fast and accurate responses (low/normal anxiety) with non-contingent negative performance feedback (high anxiety). The results indicated that the previously identified negative impact of anxiety in online control was replicated. While anxiety caused a longer displacement to reach peak velocity and greater tendency to overshoot the target, there appeared to be no shift in the attempts to utilise online visual feedback. Thus, the tendency to initially overshoot may manifest from an inefficient auxiliary procedure that manages to uphold overall movement time and response accuracy

    Proprioceptive loss and the perception, control and learning of arm movements in humans: evidence from sensory neuronopathy

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    © 2018 The Author(s) It is uncertain how vision and proprioception contribute to adaptation of voluntary arm movements. In normal participants, adaptation to imposed forces is possible with or without vision, suggesting that proprioception is sufficient; in participants with proprioceptive loss (PL), adaptation is possible with visual feedback, suggesting that proprioception is unnecessary. In experiment 1 adaptation to, and retention of, perturbing forces were evaluated in three chronically deafferented participants. They made rapid reaching movements to move a cursor toward a visual target, and a planar robot arm applied orthogonal velocity-dependent forces. Trial-by-trial error correction was observed in all participants. Such adaptation has been characterized with a dual-rate model: a fast process that learns quickly, but retains poorly and a slow process that learns slowly and retains well. Experiment 2 showed that the PL participants had large individual differences in learning and retention rates compared to normal controls. Experiment 3 tested participants’ perception of applied forces. With visual feedback, the PL participants could report the perturbation’s direction as well as controls; without visual feedback, thresholds were elevated. Experiment 4 showed, in healthy participants, that force direction could be estimated from head motion, at levels close to the no-vision threshold for the PL participants. Our results show that proprioceptive loss influences perception, motor control and adaptation but that proprioception from the moving limb is not essential for adaptation to, or detection of, force fields. The differences in learning and retention seen between the three deafferented participants suggest that they achieve these tasks in idiosyncratic ways after proprioceptive loss, possibly integrating visual and vestibular information with individual cognitive strategies

    Real-time surveillance and response system for Ebola and other emerging infections

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    ObjectiveWe will describe a real-time mobile surveillance and casemanagement system designed to organize data collected bymultiple officers about cases and their contacts. We will discuss thissurveillance system and its application for Ebola and other infectiousdiseases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and othersimilar settings. We will review the technology, results, challenges,lessons-learned, and applicability to other contexts.IntroductionImproving surveillance and response is a critical component ofthe Global Health Security Agenda. While it is impossible to predictwhere the next Ebola outbreak will occur, it is very likely that anotheroutbreak will occur in the DRC. Of the 20 known outbreaks, 7 haveoccurred in the DRC, one as recently as 2014. To rapidly detectand respond to an Ebola outbreak, we sought to develop a real-timesurveillance and response system for use in DRC and similar settings.RTI International developed Coconut Surveillance mobile software,which is currently used for real-time malaria surveillance andresponse in Zanzibar, Africa, where malaria elimination efforts areunderway. We took this system and adapted it for Ebola as a possibletool for surveillance and response to Ebola and other (re)emergingdiseases. Plans include pilot testing functionality at clinical sites inDRC, where surveillance infrastructure is limited at the local level.Coconut Surveillance is a mobile disease surveillance and rapidresponse system currently used for malaria elimination activities.It receives suspected positive case alerts from the field via mobilephones and uses mobile software to guide surveillance officersthrough a follow-up process. Coconut Surveillance runs on Androidmobile devices that are used to coordinate work in the field as well asprovide decision support during data collection and case management.In addition to standard case information, the GPS coordinates ofthe case’s household are captured as well as malaria status of allhousehold members. Data are collected and accessed off-line, and aresynchronized with a shared database when Internet connectivity isavailable. This tool has been used successfully in Zanzibar for morethan three years and has been recognized as one of the most advancedapplications of its kind.MethodsWe adapted the Coconut Surveillance system for Ebolasurveillance and response, and expanded the system for use with othercommunicable diseases. With a near real-time outbreak detectionsystem for Ebola, we may reduce the response time and contain anoutbreak faster. Using a cloud-based data repository, the modifiedCoconut System, known as Coconut Plus, also has the added value ofcase and case-contacts specific information sharing in real-time withthe national, provincial, and district level public health authorities,who would have convenient and secure access to case and contactinformation via the Internet. The software modifications to theCoconut System have been informed by testing and stakeholderfeedback.ResultsWe have developed Coconut Plus around the Coconut softwarearchitecture, which allows the team to quickly develop specificworkflows and applications, such as contact tracing, on top of a solidand well-supported base. Additionally, the adaptation was structuredto accommodate the build-out of multiple diseases, and is uniquelyhelpful for diseases that require tracking many contacts. We weregranted access in DRC to test interoperability with DHIS 2, the mostwidely used health information system software in Ebola effectedcountries. Coconut Plus is now using the DHIS 2 organizationalhierarchy definition, which means that organizational hierarchy(including information on administrative units and health carefacilities) can be exported directly from DHIS 2 to Coconut Plus.Stakeholder feedback on the usability and feasibility of the adaptedsystem has been enthusiastic, and stressed the need for additionalresources to make a pilot successful, including mobile phones andimproved mobility of surveillance staff in the field. The followingscreencast provides an overview of the application: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjLT3pLLW-UConclusionsCoconut Surveillance Plus solves an absence of a real-time mobiledecision support disease surveillance and response system that can beused for Ebola and other infectious diseases in countries with limitedsurveillance infrastructure. More broadly, this system could also beused for many communicable diseases that require contact tracing andan urgent outbreak response in environments that require rapid scaleup of a distributed surveillance, rapid response, and case managementsystem

    Advancing GHSA: Lessons learned about strengthening HIS and disease surveillance

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    ObjectiveThe objective is to discuss two decades of international experiencein health information and disease surveillance systems strengtheningand synthesize lessons learned as applicable to implementation of theGlobal Health Security Agenda (GHSA).IntroductionRTI International has worked on enhancing health informationand disease surveillance systems in many countries, includingThe Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Guinea, Indonesia,Kenya, Nepal, Philippines, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.Strengthening these systems is critical for all three of the Prevent,Detect and Respond domains within the Global Health SecurityAgenda.We have deep experience in this area, ranging from implementingDistrict Health Information Software (DHIS), electronic medicalrecords, health facility registries, eHealth national strategies,electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system(eIDSR), mobile real-time malaria surveillance and response, nationalweekly disease surveillance, patient referral system, and communitybased surveillance. These experiences and lessons learned can informwork being done to advance the GHSA.We will discuss several examples, including activities in Zimbabweand Tanzania. RTI has been working in Zimbabwe for over six yearsto strengthen the national health information system. This workhas included the configuration and roll-out of DHIS 2, the nationalelectronic health information system. In doing so, RTI examinedand revitalized the weekly disease surveillance system, improvingdisease reporting timeliness and completeness from 40% to 90%.Additionally, RTI has integrated mobile technology to help morerapidly communicate laboratory test results, a laboratory informationmanagement systems to manage and guide test sample processing,and various other patient level systems in support of health servicedelivery at the local level. This work has involved capacity buildingwithin the ministry of health to allow for sustainable support of healthinformation systems practices and technology and improvements todata dissemination and use practices.Similarly, RTI has worked for more than five years to helpstrengthening the National HIS in Tanzania. These activities haveincluded stakeholder coordination, developing national eHealthstrategy and enterprise architecture, harmonizing indicators,redesigning routine reporting instruments, national DHIS 2 roll-out,information technology infrastructure management and user helpdesk support, reducing the number of parallel information systems,data dissemination and use, development of district health profiles,development of the national health facility registry, and supportingroll-out of the electronic integrated disease surveillance system.MethodsWe will profile selected projects and synthesize critical lessonslearned that pertain to implementation of the GHSA in resourceconstrained countries.ResultsWe will summarize our experience and lessons learned withhealth information and disease surveillance systems strengthening.Topics such as those that relate to advancing the GHSA RealTime Surveillance and Reporting Action Package areas will bediscussed, including: indicator and event based surveillance systems;interoperable, interconnected, electronic real-time reporting system;analysis of surveillance data; syndromic surveillance systems;systems for efficient reporting to WHO, FAO and OIE; and reportingnetwork and protocols in country.ConclusionsOur experience working over the past 14 years in 9 countrieson different HIS and disease surveillance system strengtheningprojects has led to a deep understanding of the challenges aroundimplementation of these systems in limited resource settings. Theseexperiences and lessons learned can inform initiatives and programsto advance the GHSA

    Advancing GHSA: Lessons learned about strengthening HIS and disease surveillance

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    ObjectiveThe objective is to discuss two decades of international experiencein health information and disease surveillance systems strengtheningand synthesize lessons learned as applicable to implementation of theGlobal Health Security Agenda (GHSA).IntroductionRTI International has worked on enhancing health informationand disease surveillance systems in many countries, includingThe Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Guinea, Indonesia,Kenya, Nepal, Philippines, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.Strengthening these systems is critical for all three of the Prevent,Detect and Respond domains within the Global Health SecurityAgenda.We have deep experience in this area, ranging from implementingDistrict Health Information Software (DHIS), electronic medicalrecords, health facility registries, eHealth national strategies,electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system(eIDSR), mobile real-time malaria surveillance and response, nationalweekly disease surveillance, patient referral system, and communitybased surveillance. These experiences and lessons learned can informwork being done to advance the GHSA.We will discuss several examples, including activities in Zimbabweand Tanzania. RTI has been working in Zimbabwe for over six yearsto strengthen the national health information system. This workhas included the configuration and roll-out of DHIS 2, the nationalelectronic health information system. In doing so, RTI examinedand revitalized the weekly disease surveillance system, improvingdisease reporting timeliness and completeness from 40% to 90%.Additionally, RTI has integrated mobile technology to help morerapidly communicate laboratory test results, a laboratory informationmanagement systems to manage and guide test sample processing,and various other patient level systems in support of health servicedelivery at the local level. This work has involved capacity buildingwithin the ministry of health to allow for sustainable support of healthinformation systems practices and technology and improvements todata dissemination and use practices.Similarly, RTI has worked for more than five years to helpstrengthening the National HIS in Tanzania. These activities haveincluded stakeholder coordination, developing national eHealthstrategy and enterprise architecture, harmonizing indicators,redesigning routine reporting instruments, national DHIS 2 roll-out,information technology infrastructure management and user helpdesk support, reducing the number of parallel information systems,data dissemination and use, development of district health profiles,development of the national health facility registry, and supportingroll-out of the electronic integrated disease surveillance system.MethodsWe will profile selected projects and synthesize critical lessonslearned that pertain to implementation of the GHSA in resourceconstrained countries.ResultsWe will summarize our experience and lessons learned withhealth information and disease surveillance systems strengthening.Topics such as those that relate to advancing the GHSA RealTime Surveillance and Reporting Action Package areas will bediscussed, including: indicator and event based surveillance systems;interoperable, interconnected, electronic real-time reporting system;analysis of surveillance data; syndromic surveillance systems;systems for efficient reporting to WHO, FAO and OIE; and reportingnetwork and protocols in country.ConclusionsOur experience working over the past 14 years in 9 countrieson different HIS and disease surveillance system strengtheningprojects has led to a deep understanding of the challenges aroundimplementation of these systems in limited resource settings. Theseexperiences and lessons learned can inform initiatives and programsto advance the GHSA

    Using Mobile Technology to Facilitate Reactive Case Detection of Malaria

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    ObjectiveThis presentation will share findings from more than three years ofusing mobile technology for reactive case detection (RACD) to helpeliminate malaria in a well-defined geographic area. It will reviewthe concepts of RACD, the application of mobile technology, lessonslearned from more than three years of application, and considerationsin applying this technology in other malaria elimination contexts.IntroductionZanzibar is comprised primarily of two large islands with apopulation of 1.3 million. Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) campaigns,distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs),and use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) have reduced Malariaprevalence from 39% in 2005 to less than 1% in 2011-2012. Asmalaria burden decreases, there is an increasing need to track andfollow up individual cases to contain transmission that could lead toresurgence. One method being used to achieve these aims is reactivecase detection (RACD).RACD is generally understood to be triggered whenever a case isidentified by passive case detection. The response involves visiting thehousehold of the newly reported case and screening family members.Depending on program protocol, it may also involve screeningneighbors within a defined radius. RACD has been used or testedin Cambodia, China, India, Peru, Senegal, Swaziland, Tanzania,and Zambia. RACD can be resource intensive. Several studies raisequestions concerning whether and how RACD can be prioritized andtargeted effectively as case numbers continue to decline.MethodsSince September 2012 Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Programme(ZAMEP) has used RACD to limit onward transmission, reduce thelocal parasite reservoir, and gather data needed improve programeffectiveness. Zanzibar is one of very few malaria eliminationcontexts using a mobile technology system to support RACD.1Thissystem, called the Malaria Case Notification system (MCN) usesmobile software called Coconut Surveillance.Coconut Surveillance is free and open source software designed formalaria elimination. It includes an interactive SMS system for casenotification, a mobile software application designed to guide mobilecase workers through RACD, and an analytics software applicationdesigned for surveillance and response program managers.Data were collected in the Coconut Surveillance database formore than three years, beginning in September 2012. Reports weremonitored in real time and periodically to assess RACD responsetimes against protocol targets, case trends, case locations, and otherdata. Geographical Information System (GIS) software was usedto produce detailed maps of case households. Three independentassessments were conducted of various aspects of the malariasurveillance system.ResultsFrom September 2012 to December 2015, Coconut Surveillancehas helped malaria surveillance officers in Zanzibar respond tomore than 8,617 (84%) reported cases of malaria, complete nearly10,245 household visits, test more than 36,185 household members,and identify and treat 2,032 previously unknown cases. The averagenumber of RACD activities occurring within 48 hours increased from72% in 2013 to 89% in 2015. The number of household membersscreened during RACD also increased from 7,589 in 2013 to 14,987in 2015. Challenges included incomplete registers at health carefacilities, lack of transport, inadequate training for clinicians andsurveillance officers, and insufficient communication to the affectedcommunities.ConclusionsIn Zanzibar twenty malaria surveillance officers equipped withinexpensive Android tablets and motorbikes are keeping malariaprevalence at less than 1%. The effectiveness of the system mightbe enhanced by improving training for clinicians and surveillanceofficers, ensuring the availability of transportation for surveillanceofficers, and improving communications to the affected communities.These results suggest key considerations for applying this and similarsystems in other malaria elimination contexts

    Using Mobile Technology to Facilitate Reactive Case Detection of Malaria

    Get PDF
    ObjectiveThis presentation will share findings from more than three years ofusing mobile technology for reactive case detection (RACD) to helpeliminate malaria in a well-defined geographic area. It will reviewthe concepts of RACD, the application of mobile technology, lessonslearned from more than three years of application, and considerationsin applying this technology in other malaria elimination contexts.IntroductionZanzibar is comprised primarily of two large islands with apopulation of 1.3 million. Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) campaigns,distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs),and use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) have reduced Malariaprevalence from 39% in 2005 to less than 1% in 2011-2012. Asmalaria burden decreases, there is an increasing need to track andfollow up individual cases to contain transmission that could lead toresurgence. One method being used to achieve these aims is reactivecase detection (RACD).RACD is generally understood to be triggered whenever a case isidentified by passive case detection. The response involves visiting thehousehold of the newly reported case and screening family members.Depending on program protocol, it may also involve screeningneighbors within a defined radius. RACD has been used or testedin Cambodia, China, India, Peru, Senegal, Swaziland, Tanzania,and Zambia. RACD can be resource intensive. Several studies raisequestions concerning whether and how RACD can be prioritized andtargeted effectively as case numbers continue to decline.MethodsSince September 2012 Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Programme(ZAMEP) has used RACD to limit onward transmission, reduce thelocal parasite reservoir, and gather data needed improve programeffectiveness. Zanzibar is one of very few malaria eliminationcontexts using a mobile technology system to support RACD.1Thissystem, called the Malaria Case Notification system (MCN) usesmobile software called Coconut Surveillance.Coconut Surveillance is free and open source software designed formalaria elimination. It includes an interactive SMS system for casenotification, a mobile software application designed to guide mobilecase workers through RACD, and an analytics software applicationdesigned for surveillance and response program managers.Data were collected in the Coconut Surveillance database formore than three years, beginning in September 2012. Reports weremonitored in real time and periodically to assess RACD responsetimes against protocol targets, case trends, case locations, and otherdata. Geographical Information System (GIS) software was usedto produce detailed maps of case households. Three independentassessments were conducted of various aspects of the malariasurveillance system.ResultsFrom September 2012 to December 2015, Coconut Surveillancehas helped malaria surveillance officers in Zanzibar respond tomore than 8,617 (84%) reported cases of malaria, complete nearly10,245 household visits, test more than 36,185 household members,and identify and treat 2,032 previously unknown cases. The averagenumber of RACD activities occurring within 48 hours increased from72% in 2013 to 89% in 2015. The number of household membersscreened during RACD also increased from 7,589 in 2013 to 14,987in 2015. Challenges included incomplete registers at health carefacilities, lack of transport, inadequate training for clinicians andsurveillance officers, and insufficient communication to the affectedcommunities.ConclusionsIn Zanzibar twenty malaria surveillance officers equipped withinexpensive Android tablets and motorbikes are keeping malariaprevalence at less than 1%. The effectiveness of the system mightbe enhanced by improving training for clinicians and surveillanceofficers, ensuring the availability of transportation for surveillanceofficers, and improving communications to the affected communities.These results suggest key considerations for applying this and similarsystems in other malaria elimination contexts
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