17 research outputs found

    An Expert System to Convert Knowledge-Based Geological Engineering Systems into Fortran

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    A knowledge-based geographic information system (KBGIS) for geological engineering map (GEM) production was developed in GoldWorks, an expert system development shell. Using this shell, the geological engineer is able to develop a rule base for a particular application that results in a valid GEM. However, this implementation failed as a practical production system due to the excessive execution time required to produce a GEM. To solve this problem, a conversion expert system was developed which accepted, as input, a KBGIS and produced, as output, the equivalent Fortran code. Two major objectives are accomplished as a result of this system: GEN production time is dramatically reduced and the versatility of the KBGIS development environment is retained. The conversion expert system was tested by converting the Midwestern KBGIS expert syste

    Development of an Expert System to Convert Knowledge-based Geological Engineering Systems into Fortran

    Get PDF
    A knowledge-based geographic information system (KBGIS) for geological engineering map (GEM) production was developed in GoldWorks, an expert system development shell. GoldWorks allows the geological engineer to develop a rule base for a GEM application. Implementation of the resultant rule base produced a valid GEM, but took too much time. This proved that knowledge-based GEM production was possible but in GoldWorks implementation failed as a practical production system. To solve this problem, a Conversion Expert System was developed which accepted, as input, a KBGIS and produced, as output, the equivalent Fortran code. This allowed the engineer to utilize GoldWorks for development of the rule base while implementing the rule base in a more practical manner (as a Fortran program). Testing of the Fortran program generated by this Conversion System confirmed that the GEMs produced were identical to those from the KBGIS, and execution time was significantly reduced. There was an additional benefit; since use of the Fortran program did not require access to the GoldWorks System, a single GoldWorks package could be used with the Conversion System to develop several Fortran production systems. These systems could then be used at remote production sites. However, each Fortran production system still required access to the Earth Resources Data Analysis System (ERDAS) that supplied the GIS input and output files. Thus, this Conversion System achieved two major objectives; it dramatically reduced GEM production time, and it added versatility

    A New High-Resolution Map of World Mountains and an Online Tool for Visualizing and Comparing

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    Answers to the seemingly straightforward questions “what is a mountain?” and “where are the mountains of the world?” are in fact quite complex, and there have been few attempts to map the mountains of the earth in a consistent and rigorous fashion. However, knowing exactly where mountain ecosystems are distributed on the planet is a precursor to conserving them, as called for in Sustainable Development Goals 6 and 15 of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In this article we first compare 3 characterizations of global mountain distributions, including a new, high-resolution (250 m) map of global mountains derived from terrain characteristics. We show how differences in conceptual definition, methodology, and spatial resolution of source data can result in differences in the extent and location of lands classed as mountains. For example, the new 250-m resource documents a larger global mountain extent than previous characterizations, although it excludes plateaus, hilly forelands, and other landforms that are often considered part of mountain areas. We then introduce the Global Mountain Explorer, a new web-based application specifically developed for exploration, visualization, and comparison of these maps. This new open-access tool is an intuitive and versatile resource suitable for a broad range of users and applications

    A Global Ecological Classification of Coastal Segment Units to Complement Marine Biodiversity Observation Network Assessments

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    A new data layer provides Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) labels for global coastal segments at 1 km or shorter resolution. These characteristics are summarized for six US Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) sites and one MBON Pole to Pole of the Americas site in Argentina. The global coastlines CMECS classifications were produced from a partitioning of a 30 m Landsat-derived shoreline vector that was segmented into 4 million 1 km or shorter segments. Each segment was attributed with values from 10 variables that represent the ecological settings in which the coastline occurs, including properties of the adjacent water, adjacent land, and coastline itself. The 4 million segments were classified into 81,000 coastal segment units (CSUs) as unique combinations of variable classes. We summarize the process to develop the CSUs and derive summary descriptions for the seven MBON case study sites. We discuss the intended application of the new CSU data for research and management in coastal areas

    Development of an expert system to convert knowledge-based geological engineering systems into Fortran

    No full text
    A knowledge-based geographic information system (KBGIS) for geological engineering map (GEM) production was developed in GoldWorks, an expert system development shell. GoldWorks allows the geological engineer to develop a rule base for a GEM application. Implementation of the resultant rule base produced a valid GEM, but took too much time. This proved that knowledge-based GEM production was possible but in GoldWorks implementation failed as a practical production system. To solve this problem, a Conversion Expert System was developed which accepted, as input, a KBGIS and produced, as output, the equivalent Fortran code. This allowed the engineer to utilize GoldWorks for development of the rule base while implementing the rule base in a more practical manner (as a Fortran program). Testing of the Fortran program generated by this Conversion System confirmed that the GEMs produced were identical to those from the KBGIS, and execution time was significantly reduced. There was an additional benefit; since use of the Fortran program did not require access to the GoldWorks System, a single GoldWorks package could be used with the Conversion System to develop several Fortran production systems. These systems could then be used at remote production sites. However, each Fortran production system still required access to the Earth Resources Data Analysis System (ERDAS) that supplied the GIS input and output files. Thus, this Conversion System achieved two major objectives; it dramatically reduced GEM production time, and it added versatility --Abstract, page iii

    Isokinetic Strength Testing in Older Women: A Comparison of Two Systems

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    A New High-Resolution Map of World Mountains and an Online Tool for Visualizing and Comparing Characterizations of Global Mountain Distributions

    Get PDF
    Answers to the seemingly straightforward questions “what is a mountain?” and “where are the mountains of the world?” are in fact quite complex, and there have been few attempts to map the mountains of the earth in a consistent and rigorous fashion. However, knowing exactly where mountain ecosystems are distributed on the planet is a precursor to conserving them, as called for in Sustainable Development Goals 6 and 15 of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In this article we first compare 3 characterizations of global mountain distributions, including a new, high-resolution (250 m) map of global mountains derived from terrain characteristics. We show how differences in conceptual definition, methodology, and spatial resolution of source data can result in differences in the extent and location of lands classed as mountains. For example, the new 250-m resource documents a larger global mountain extent than previous characterizations, although it excludes plateaus, hilly forelands, and other landforms that are often considered part of mountain areas. We then introduce the Global Mountain Explorer, a new web-based application specifically developed for exploration, visualization, and comparison of these maps. This new open-access tool is an intuitive and versatile resource suitable for a broad range of users and applications

    Safety and immunogenicity of sequential rotavirus vaccine schedules

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    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although both licensed rotavirus vaccines are safe and effective, it is often not possible to complete the schedule by using the same vaccine formulation. The goal of this study was to investigate the noninferiority of the immune responses to the 2 licensed rotavirus vaccines when administered as a mixed schedule compared with administering a single vaccine formulation alone. METHODS: Randomized, multicenter, open-label study. Healthy infants (6-14 weeks of age) were randomized to receive rotavirus vaccines in 1 of 5 different schedules (2 using a single vaccine for all doses, and 3 using mixed schedules). The group receiving only the monovalent rotavirus vaccine received 2 doses of vaccine and the other 4 groups received 3 doses of vaccine. Serum for immunogenicity testing was obtained 1 month after the last vaccine dose and the proportion of seropositive children (rotavirus immunoglobulin A >20 U/mL) were compared in all the vaccine groups. RESULTS: Between March 2011 and September 2013, 1393 children were enrolled and randomized. Immune responses to all the sequential mixed vaccine schedules were shown to be noninferior when compared with the 2 single vaccine reference groups. The proportion of children seropositive to at least 1 vaccine antigen at 1 month after vaccination ranged from 77% to 96%, and was not significantly different among all the study groups. All schedules were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Mixed schedules are safe and induced comparable immune responses when compared with the licensed rotavirus vaccines given alone.Fil: Libster, Romina Paula. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Fundación para la Investigación en Infectología Infantil; Argentina. Vanderbilt University; Estados UnidosFil: McNeal, Monica. Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center; Estados UnidosFil: Walter, Emmanuel B.. Duke University School Of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Shane, Andi L.. University of Emory; Estados UnidosFil: Winokur, Patricia. University of Iowa; Estados UnidosFil: Cress, Gretchen. University of Iowa; Estados UnidosFil: Berry, Andrea A.. University of Maryland; Estados UnidosFil: Kotloff, Karen L.. University of Maryland; Estados UnidosFil: Sarpong, Kwabena. University of Texas Medical Branch; Estados UnidosFil: Turley, Christine B.. University of Texas Medical Branch; Estados UnidosFil: Harrison, Christopher J.. Children's Mercy Hospital; Estados UnidosFil: Pahud, Barbara A.. Children's Mercy Hospital; Estados UnidosFil: Marbin, Jyothi. Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland; Estados UnidosFil: Dunn, John. Group Health Cooperative; Estados UnidosFil: El-Khorazaty, Jill. Emmes Corporation; Estados UnidosFil: Barret, Jill. Emmes Corporation; Estados UnidosFil: Edwards, Kathryn M. Vanderbilt University; Estados Unido

    A global ecological classification of coastal segment units: To complement marine biodiversity observation network assessments

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    A new data layer provides Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) labels for global coastal segments at 1 km or shorter resolution. These characteristics are summarized for six US Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) sites and one MBON Pole to Pole of the Americas site in Argentina. The global coastlines CMECS classifications were produced from a partitioning of a 30 m Landsat-derived shoreline vector that was segmented into 4 million 1 km or shorter segments. Each segment was attributed with values from 10 variables that represent the ecological settings in which the coastline occurs, including properties of the adjacent water, adjacent land, and coastline itself. The 4 million segments were classified into 81,000 coastal segment units (CSUs) as unique combinations of variable classes. We summarize the process to develop the CSUs and derive summary descriptions for the seven MBON case study sites. We discuss the intended application of the new CSU data for research and management in coastal areas
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