47 research outputs found

    Wine and metaphor: cross-cultural [dis]harmony

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    When influential Australian wine judge and critic James Halliday describes an Australian 2008 Shiraz as 'an undoubtedly full-bodied wine, with a peacock's tail display of blackberry fruit, dark chocolate and vanillin oak, and with impeccable balance and line, the finish subtle' (Dan Murphy's, 2011, October, p. 7) he endeavours to capture its essence in prose. The use of such expressive and evocative language is intended to conjure visual, emotive and synaesthetic perceptions from his audience. This chapter explores the bond between metaphorical language and wine discourse in the specialised genre of wine tasting notes

    Wine communication in a global market: a study of metaphor through the genre of Australian wine reviews

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    This thesis is a report on wine communication focused on metaphoric language identified in the genre of wine reviews. Specifically, the research centred on Australian wine reviews written by Australian wine critics about Australian wines currently exported to the greater China region. In the genre of wine reviews, metaphoric expressions are frequently used to talk about wine (Caballero & Suárez-Toste, 2008). The thesis developed understanding of the influence of metaphoric language and its potential to constrain or motivate people’s sensory and affective responses to wine and highlighted the need to consider congruency of metaphoric language in terms of wine communication and education. The research was theoretically framed by the conceptual metaphor theory (CMT) of Lakoff and Johnson (1980) and took a cognitive linguistic perspective to metaphor analysis (Croft & Cruse, 2004). Wine appreciation was argued to be a social event in contrast to an observational event. From this perspective, wine appreciation is concerned with influencing audience perceptions in contrast to a spontaneous commentary of an event. The thesis presents the findings of two qualitative studies that used a corpus approach to metaphor use and understanding in the genre of wine reviews. The investigation identified metaphoric expressions in Australian wine reviews and went on to explore their understanding and transfer by wine educators in Australia and China. Metaphor identification used the Metaphor Identification Procedure Vrije Universiteit (Steen et al., 2010) and the UCREL Semantic Annotation System (Archer et al., 2004) for semantic and conceptual analysis. Results indicated six underpinning metaphoric themes (i.e., AN OBJECT, A THREE DIMENSIONAL ARTEFACT, AN INSTITUTIONAL ARTEFACT, A TEXTILE, A LIVING ORGANISM, and A PERSON) of which spatial and temporal properties were often integrated. A comparison of wine educator responses to interpretation and transmission tasks showed that anthropomorphic metaphor (i.e., WINE IS A PERSON) tended to be conceptualized similarly by participants more often than other metaphoric themes. In conclusion, the cultural artefact of language used in the genre of wine reviews and the metaphoric potential of linguistic choices on sensory and affective perceptions indicates a need for the consideration of congruency when wine communication crosses cultural and linguistic borders

    Decent Work’s Association With Job Satisfaction, Work Engagement, and Withdrawal Intentions in Australian Working Adults

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    The present research is focused on the measurement properties of the Decent Work Scale (DWS) in Australia and adds to the cumulative evidence of the measure’s international utility for psychological research into the role of work in people’s lives. The study contributes new evidence via a survey of a sample of workers (N ¼ 201) who completed the DWS and criterion measures of career-related factors including job satisfaction, work engagement, and withdrawal intentions. Correlated factors, higher order, and bifactor models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. All models were satisfactory and the bifactor model evinced preferable fit. The DWS Values Congruence subscale predicted all criterion measures. Workers’ incomes and ratings of their occupations’ prestige had no main effects or interaction effect on the DWS subscales. Recommendations for future research include testing the DWS’s relations with measures of mental health which are known correlates of career-related outcomes

    The Economic Deterioration of the Family: Historical Contingencies Preceding the Great Recession

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    The “Great Recession” in the United States exposed contradictions between the economic wellbeing of families and capital that developed in the decades prior to this latest downturn. Using social structure of accumulation theory, a qualitative institutional analysis, and quantitative time-series models, this article investigates historically-contingent relations between the nature of public assistance, family economic deterioration, and capital accumulation. To sustain the circuit of capital, I argue that the family propped up economic growth first through public cash assistance and then through private expenditures, the latter of which lead to the economic deterioration of families dependent on unprecedented levels of debt

    The sun is no fun without rain : Physical environments affect how we feel about yellow across 55 countries

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    Across cultures, people associate colours with emotions. Here, we test the hypothesis that one driver of this cross-modal correspondence is the physical environment we live in. We focus on a prime example – the association of yellow with joy, – which conceivably arises because yellow is reminiscent of life-sustaining sunshine and pleasant weather. If so, this association should be especially strong in countries where sunny weather is a rare occurrence. We analysed yellow-joy associations of 6625 participants from 55 countries to investigate how yellow-joy associations varied geographically, climatologically, and seasonally. We assessed the distance to the equator, sunshine, precipitation, and daytime hours. Consistent with our hypotheses, participants who live further away from the equator and in rainier countries are more likely to associate yellow with joy. We did not find associations with seasonal variations. Our findings support a role for the physical environment in shaping the affective meaning of colour.Peer reviewe

    Herbivore regulation of plant abundance in aquatic ecosystems.

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    Herbivory is a fundamental process that controls primary producer abundance and regulates energy and nutrient flows to higher trophic levels. Despite the recent proliferation of small-scale studies on herbivore effects on aquatic plants, there remains limited understanding of the factors that control consumer regulation of vascular plants in aquatic ecosystems. Our current knowledge of the regulation of primary producers has hindered efforts to understand the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and to manage such ecosystems effectively. We conducted a global meta-analysis of the outcomes of plant-herbivore interactions using a data set comprised of 326 values from 163 studies, in order to test two mechanistic hypotheses: first, that greater negative changes in plant abundance would be associated with higher herbivore biomass densities; second, that the magnitude of changes in plant abundance would vary with herbivore taxonomic identity. We found evidence that plant abundance declined with increased herbivore density, with plants eliminated at high densities. Significant between-taxa differences in impact were detected, with insects associated with smaller reductions in plant abundance than all other taxa. Similarly, birds caused smaller reductions in plant abundance than echinoderms, fish, or molluscs. Furthermore, larger reductions in plant abundance were detected for fish relative to crustaceans. We found a positive relationship between herbivore species richness and change in plant abundance, with the strongest reductions in plant abundance reported for low herbivore species richness, suggesting that greater herbivore diversity may protect against large reductions in plant abundance. Finally, we found that herbivore-plant nativeness was a key factor affecting the magnitude of herbivore impacts on plant abundance across a wide range of species assemblages. Assemblages comprised of invasive herbivores and native plant assemblages were associated with greater reductions in plant abundance compared with invasive herbivores and invasive plants, native herbivores and invasive plants, native herbivores and mixed-nativeness plants, and native herbivores and native plants. By contrast, assemblages comprised of native herbivores and invasive plants were associated with lower reductions in plant abundance compared with both mixed-nativeness herbivores and native plants, and native herbivores and native plants. However, the effects of herbivore-plant nativeness on changes in plant abundance were reduced at high herbivore densities. Our mean reductions in aquatic plant abundance are greater than those reported in the literature for terrestrial plants, but lower than aquatic algae. Our findings highlight the need for a substantial shift in how biologists incorporate plant-herbivore interactions into theories of aquatic ecosystem structure and functioning. Currently, the failure to incorporate top-down effects continues to hinder our capacity to understand and manage the ecological dynamics of habitats that contain aquatic plants

    Understanding of Coupled Terrestrial Carbon, Nitrogen and Water Dynamics—An Overview

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    Coupled terrestrial carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and hydrological processes play a crucial role in the climate system, providing both positive and negative feedbacks to climate change. In this review we summarize published research results to gain an increased understanding of the dynamics between vegetation and atmosphere processes. A variety of methods, including monitoring (e.g., eddy covariance flux tower, remote sensing, etc.) and modeling (i.e., ecosystem, hydrology and atmospheric inversion modeling) the terrestrial carbon and water budgeting, are evaluated and compared. We highlight two major research areas where additional research could be focused: (i) Conceptually, the hydrological and biogeochemical processes are closely linked, however, the coupling processes between terrestrial C, N and hydrological processes are far from well understood; and (ii) there are significant uncertainties in estimates of the components of the C balance, especially at landscape and regional scales. To address these two questions, a synthetic research framework is needed which includes both bottom-up and top-down approaches integrating scalable (footprint and ecosystem) models and a spatially nested hierarchy of observations which include multispectral remote sensing, inventories, existing regional clusters of eddy-covariance flux towers and CO2 mixing ratio towers and chambers
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