2,287 research outputs found

    A New Class of Non-Linear Stability Preserving Operators

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    We extend Br\"and\'en's recent proof of a conjecture of Stanley and describe a new class of non-linear operators that preserve weak Hurwitz stability and the Laguerre-P\'olya class.Comment: Fixed typos, spelling, and updated links in reference

    Plasmaspheric H+, He+, He++, O+, and O++ Densities and Temperatures

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    Thermal plasmaspheric densities and temperatures for five ion species have recently become available, even though these quantities were derived some time ago from the Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer onboard the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite over the years 1981-1984. The quantitative properties will be presented. Densities are found to have one behavior with lessor statistical variation below about L=2 and another with much greater variability above that Lshell. Temperatures also have a behavior difference between low and higher L-values. The density ratio He++/H+ is the best behaved with values of about 0.2% that slightly increase with increasing L. Unlike the He+/H+ density ratio that on average decreases with increasing Lvalue, the O+/H+ and O++/H+ density ratios have decreasing values below about L=2 and increasing average ratios at higher L-values. Hydrogen ion temperatures range from about 0.2 eV to several 10s of eV for a few measurements, although the bulk of the observations are of temperatures below 3 eV, again increasing with L-value. The temperature ratios of He+/H+ are tightly ordered around 1.0 except for the middle plasmasphere between L=3.5 and 4.5 where He+ temperatures can be significantly higher. The temperatures of He++, O+, and O++ are consistently higher than H+

    A modified thermal conductivity for low density plasma magnetic flux tubes

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    In response to inconsistencies which have arisen in results from a hydrodynamic model in simulation of high ion temperature (1-2 eV) observed in low density, outer plasmasphere flux tubes, we postulate a reduced thermal conductivity coefficient in which only particles in the loss cone of the quasi-collisionless plasma contribute to the thermal conduction. Other particles are assumed to magnetically mirror before they reach the topside ionosphere and therefore not to remove thermal energy from the plasmasphere. This concept is used to formulate a mathematically simple, but physically limiting model for a modified thermal conductivity coefficient. When this modified coefficient is employed in the hydrodynamic model in a case study, the inconsistencies between simulation results and observations are largely resolved. The high simulated ion temperatures are achieved with significantly lower ion temperatures in the topside ionosphere. We suggest that this mechanism may be operative under the limited low density, refilling conditions in which high ion temperatures are observed

    New insight into the evolution of the vertebrate respiratory system and the discovery of unidirectional airflow in iguana lungs

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    Journal ArticleThe generally accepted framework for the evolution of a key feature of the avian respiratory system, unidirectional airflow, is that it is an adaptation for efficiency of gas exchange and expanded aerobic capacities, and therefore it has historically been viewed as important to the ability of birds to fly and to maintain an endothermic metabolism. This pattern of flow has been presumed to arise from specific features of the respiratory system, such as an enclosed intrapulmonary bronchus and parabronchi. Here we show unidirectional airflow in the green iguana, a lizard with a strikingly different natural history from that of birds and lacking these anatomical features. This discovery indicates a paradigm shift is needed. The selective drivers of the trait, its date of origin, and the fundamental aerodynamic mechanisms by which unidirectional flow arises must be reassessed to be congruent with the natural history of this lineage. Unidirectional flow may serve functions other than expanded aerobic capacity; it may have been present in the ancestral diapsid; and it can occur in structurally simple lungs

    Evolution of precipitates, in particular cruciform and cuboid particles, during simulated direct charging of thin slab cast vanadium microalloyed steels

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    A study has been undertaken of four vanadium based steels which have been processed by a simulated direct charging route using processing parameters typical of thin slab casting, where the cast product has a thickness of 50 to 80mm ( in this study 50 mm) and is fed directly to a furnace to equalise the microstructure prior to rolling. In the direct charging process, cooling rates are faster, equalisation times shorter and the amount of deformation introduced during rolling less than in conventional practice. Samples in this study were quenched after casting, after equalisation, after 4th rolling pass and after coiling, to follow the evolution of microstructure. The mechanical and toughness properties and the microstructural features might be expected to differ from equivalent steels, which have undergone conventional processing. The four low carbon steels (~0.06wt%) which were studied contained 0.1wt%V (V-N), 0.1wt%V and 0.010wt%Ti (V-Ti), 0.1wt%V and 0.03wt%Nb (V-Nb), and 0.1wt%V, 0.03wt%Nb and 0.007wt%Ti (V-Nb-Ti). Steels V-N and V-Ti contained around 0.02wt% N, while the other two contained about 0.01wt%N. The as-cast steels were heated at three equalising temperatures of 1050C, 1100C or 1200C and held for 30-60 minutes prior to rolling. Optical microscopy and analytical electron microscopy, including parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS), were used to characterise the precipitates. In the as-cast condition, dendrites and plates were found. Cuboid particles were seen at this stage in Steel V-Ti, but they appeared only in the other steels after equalization. In addition, in the final product of all the steels, fine particles were seen, but it was only in the two titanium steels that cruciform precipitates were present. PEELS analysis showed that the dendrites, plates, cuboids, cruciforms and fine precipitates were essentially nitrides. The two Ti steels had better toughness than the other steels but inferior lower yield stress values. This was thought to be, in part, due to the formation of cruciform precipitates in austenite, thereby removing nitrogen and the microalloying elements which would have been expected to precipitate in ferrite as dispersion hardening particles

    Confinement and electron correlation effects in photoionization of atoms in endohedral anions: Ne@C60^{z-}

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    Trends in resonances, termed confinement resonances, in photoionization of atoms A in endohedral fullerene anions A@C60^{z-} are theoretically studied and exemplified by the photoionization of Ne in Ne@C{60}^{z-}. Remarkably, above a particular nl ionization threshold of Ne in neutral Ne@C60 (I_{nl}^{z=0}), confinement resonances in corresponding partial photoionization cross sections sigma_{nl} of Ne in any charged Ne@C60^{z-} remain almost intact by a charge z on the carbon cage, as a general phenomenon. At lower photon energies, omega < I_{nl}^{z=0}, the corresponding photoionization cross sections develop additional, strong, z-dependent resonances, termed Coulomb confinement resonances, as a general occurrence. Furthermore, near the innermost 1s ionization threshold, the 2p photoionization cross section sigma_{2p} of the outermost 2p subshell of thus confined Ne is found to inherit the confinement resonance structure of the 1s photoionization spectrum, via interchannel coupling. As a result, new confinement resonances emerge in the 2p photoionization cross section of the confined Ne atom at photoelectron energies which exceed the 2p threshold by about a thousand eV, i.e., far above where conventional wisdom said they would exist. Thus, the general possibility for confinement resonances to resurrect in photoionization spectra of encapsulated atoms far above thresholds is revealed, as an interesting novel general phenomenon.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, Latex2e, jpconf.cls styl

    Brayton-cycle radioisotope heat source design study. Phase I - /Conceptual design/ report

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    Conceptual designs for radioisotope heat source systems to provide 25 kW thermal power to Brayton cycle power conversion system for space application

    Evolution of trace gases and particles emitted by a chaparral fire in California

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    Biomass burning (BB) is a major global source of trace gases and particles. Accurately representing the production and evolution of these emissions is an important goal for atmospheric chemical transport models. We measured a suite of gases and aerosols emitted from an 81 hectare prescribed fire in chaparral fuels on the central coast of California, US on 17 November 2009. We also measured physical and chemical changes that occurred in the isolated downwind plume in the first ~4 h after emission. The measurements were carried out onboard a Twin Otter aircraft outfitted with an airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (AFTIR), aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), single particle soot photometer (SP2), nephelometer, LiCor CO_2 analyzer, a chemiluminescence ozone instrument, and a wing-mounted meteorological probe. Our measurements included: CO_2; CO; NO_x; NH_3; non-methane organic compounds; organic aerosol (OA); inorganic aerosol (nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, and chloride); aerosol light scattering; refractory black carbon (rBC); and ambient temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and three-dimensional wind velocity. The molar ratio of excess O_3 to excess CO in the plume (ΔO_3/ΔCO) increased from −5.13 (±1.13) × 10^(−3) to 10.2 (±2.16) × 10^(−2) in ~4.5 h following smoke emission. Excess acetic and formic acid (normalized to excess CO) increased by factors of 1.73 ± 0.43 and 7.34 ± 3.03 (respectively) over the same time since emission. Based on the rapid decay of C_2H_4 we infer an in-plume average OH concentration of 5.27 (±0.97) × 10^6 molec cm^(−3), consistent with previous studies showing elevated OH concentrations in biomass burning plumes. Ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate all increased over the course of 4 h. The observed ammonium increase was a factor of 3.90 ± 2.93 in about 4 h, but accounted for just ~36% of the gaseous ammonia lost on a molar basis. Some of the gas phase NH_3 loss may have been due to condensation on, or formation of, particles below the AMS detection range. NO_x was converted to PAN and particle nitrate with PAN production being about two times greater than production of observable nitrate in the first ~4 h following emission. The excess aerosol light scattering in the plume (normalized to excess CO_2) increased by a factor of 2.50 ± 0.74 over 4 h. The increase in light scattering was similar to that observed in an earlier study of a biomass burning plume in Mexico where significant secondary formation of OA closely tracked the increase in scattering. In the California plume, however, ΔOA/ΔCO_2 decreased sharply for the first hour and then increased slowly with a net decrease of ~20% over 4 h. The fraction of thickly coated rBC particles increased up to ~85% over the 4 h aging period. Decreasing OA accompanied by increased scattering/particle coating in initial aging may be due to a combination of particle coagulation and evaporation processes. Recondensation of species initially evaporated from the particles may have contributed to the subsequent slow rise in OA. We compare our results to observations from other plume aging studies and suggest that differences in environmental factors such as smoke concentration, oxidant concentration, actinic flux, and RH contribute significantly to the variation in plume evolution observations

    Multibody aircraft study, volume 2

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    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing
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