1,764 research outputs found

    Horizontal Violence Effect on Nurse Retention

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    Horizontal violence is known by a variety of terms such as lateral violence, bullying, and incivility. Christie and Jones (2014) describe lateral violence as a problem in nursing where a behavior is demonstrated through harmful actions that occur between nurses. Studies have revealed how horizontal violence affects nurse retention. Horizontal violence is a relevant issue in the healthcare community, yet often goes undiscussed. Walrafen (2012) explains that an outcome of horizontal violence in nursing is directly proportional to a decrease in retention of nurses. Sherman (2012) proclaimed that nurses who are subjected to horizontal violence have low self-esteem, depression, excessive sick leave, and poor morale. As Wilson (2011) identified nurses, who witness or experience horizontal violence have an increased desire to leave the organization where the bullying takes place. Horizontal violence is a pervasive source of occupational stress with physical, psychological, and organizational consequences (Hauge, et al, 2010). Roy (2007) describes this as an unkind, discourteous manner in which nurses relate to their colleagues. As nurses seek to perform their daily tasks, other co-workers may embarrass them for their lack of knowledge, tease them as they participate in informal cliques, or demean them for their technique (Bakker, 2012). Creating excuses, taunting, and refusing to share information, nursing education or knowledge are examples of horizontal violence (Ball, 1996)

    Emerging Technologies and Approaches for In Situ, Autonomous Observing in the Arctic

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    Understanding and predicting Arctic change and its impacts on global climate requires broad, sustained observations of the atmosphere-ice-ocean system, yet technological and logistical challenges severely restrict the temporal and spatial scope of observing efforts. Satellite remote sensing provides unprecedented, pan-Arctic measurements of the surface, but complementary in situ observations are required to complete the picture. Over the past few decades, a diverse range of autonomous platforms have been developed to make broad, sustained observations of the ice-free ocean, often with near-real-time data delivery. Though these technologies are well suited to the difficult environmental conditions and remote logistics that complicate Arctic observing, they face a suite of additional challenges, such as limited access to satellite services that make geolocation and communication possible. This paper reviews new platform and sensor developments, adaptations of mature technologies, and approaches for their use, placed within the framework of Arctic Ocean observing needs

    What do older people do when sitting and why? Implications for decreasing sedentary behaviour

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    Background and Objectives: Sitting less can reduce older adults’ risk of ill health and disability. Effective sedentary behavior interventions require greater understanding of what older adults do when sitting (and not sitting), and why. This study compares the types, context, and role of sitting activities in the daily lives of older men and women who sit more or less than average. Research Design and Methods: Semistructured interviews with 44 older men and women of different ages, socioeconomic status, and objectively measured sedentary behavior were analyzed using social practice theory to explore the multifactorial, inter-relational influences on their sedentary behavior. Thematic frameworks facilitated between-group comparisons. Results: Older adults described many different leisure time, household, transport, and occupational sitting and non-sitting activities. Leisure-time sitting in the home (e.g., watching TV) was most common, but many non-sitting activities, including “pottering” doing household chores, also took place at home. Other people and access to leisure facilities were associated with lower sedentary behavior. The distinction between being busy/not busy was more important to most participants than sitting/not sitting, and informed their judgments about high-value “purposeful” (social, cognitively active, restorative) sitting and low-value “passive” sitting. Declining physical function contributed to temporal sitting patterns that did not vary much from day-to-day. Discussion and Implications: Sitting is associated with cognitive, social, and/or restorative benefits, embedded within older adults’ daily routines, and therefore difficult to change. Useful strategies include supporting older adults to engage with other people and local facilities outside the home, and break up periods of passive sitting at home

    MOST detects corotating bright spots on the mid-O type giant {\xi} Persei

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    We have used the MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations of STars) microsatellite to obtain four weeks of contiguous high-precision broadband visual photometry of the O7.5III(n)((f)) star {\xi} Persei in November 2011. This star is well known from previous work to show prominent DACs (Discrete Absorption Components) on time-scales of about 2 d from UV spectroscopy and NRP (Non Radial Pulsation) with one (l = 3) p-mode oscillation with a period of 3.5 h from optical spectroscopy. Our MOST-orbit (101.4 min) binned photometry fails to reveal any periodic light variations above the 0.1 mmag 3-sigma noise level for periods of hours, while several prominent Fourier peaks emerge at the 1 mmag level in the two-day period range. These longer-period variations are unlikely due to pulsations, including gravity modes. From our simulations based upon a simple spot model, we deduce that we are seeing the photometric modulation of several co-rotating bright spots on the stellar surface. In our model, the starting times (random) and lifetimes (up to several rotations) vary from one spot to another yet all spots rotate at the same period of 4.18 d, the best-estimated rotation period of the star. This is the first convincing reported case of co-rotating bright spots on an O star, with important implications for drivers of the DACs (resulting from CIRs - Corotating Interaction Regions) with possible bright-spot generation via a breakout at the surface of a global magnetic field generated by a subsurface convection zone.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables, MNRAS in pres

    Mechanisms Underlying the Antiarrhythmic Effect of ARumenamide-787 in Experimental Models of the J Wave Syndromes and Hypothermia

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    BACKGROUND: Brugada (BrS) and early repolarization syndromes (ERS), the so-called J wave syndromes (JWS), are associated with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Pharmacologic approaches to therapy are currently limited. In this study, we examine the effects of ARumenamide-787 (AR-787) to suppress the electrocardiographic and arrhythmic manifestations of JWS and hypothermia. METHODS: We studied the effects of AR-787 on INa and IKr in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the α- and β1-subunits of the cardiac (NaV1.5) sodium channel and hERG channel, respectively. In addition, we studied its effect on Ito, INa and ICa in dissociated canine ventricular myocytes along with action potentials and ECG from coronary-perfused right (RV) and left (LV) ventricular wedge preparations. The Ito agonist, NS5806 (5-10 μM), ICa blocker, verapamil (2.5 μM), and INa blocker, ajmaline (2.5 μM), were used to mimic the genetic defects associated with JWS and to induce the electrocardiographic and arrhythmic manifestations of JWS (prominent J waves/ST segment elevation, phase 2 reentry and polymorphic VT/VF) in canine ventricular wedge preparations. RESULTS: AR-787 (1, 10 and 50 μM) exerted pleiotropic effects on cardiac ion channels. The predominant effect was inhibition of the transient outward current (Ito) and enhancement of the sodium channel current (INa), with lesser effects to inhibit IKr and augment calcium channel current (ICa). AR-787 diminished the electrocardiographic J wave and prevented and/or suppressed all arrhythmic activity in canine RV and LV experimental models of BrS, ERS and hypothermia. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings point to AR-787 as promising candidate for the pharmacologic treatment of JWS and hypothermia

    Present and Future CP Measurements

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    We review theoretical and experimental results on CP violation summarizing the discussions in the working group on CP violation at the UK phenomenology workshop 2000 in Durham.Comment: 104 pages, Latex, to appear in Journal of Physics

    Phase I Safety and Immunogenicity Evaluation of MVA-CMDR, a Multigenic, Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara-HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate

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    We conducted a Phase I randomized, dose-escalation, route-comparison trial of MVA-CMDR, a candidate HIV-1 vaccine based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector expressing HIV-1 genes env/gag/pol. The HIV sequences were derived from circulating recombinant form CRF01_AE, which predominates in Thailand. The objective was to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of MVA-CMDR in human volunteers in the US and Thailand.MVA-CMDR or placebo was administered intra-muscularly (IM; 10(7) or 10(8) pfu) or intradermally (ID; 10(6) or 10(7) pfu) at months 0, 1 and 3, to 48 healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV-1 infection. Twelve volunteers in each dosage group were randomized to receive MVA-CMDR or placebo (10∶2). Volunteers were actively monitored for local and systemic reactogenicity and adverse events post vaccination. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNγ Elispot assay, an intracellular cytokine staining assay, lymphocyte proliferation and a (51)Cr-release assay. Humoral immunogenicity was assessed by ADCC for gp120 and binding antibody ELISAs for gp120 and p24. MVA-CMDR was safe and well tolerated with no vaccine related serious adverse events. Cell-mediated immune responses were: (i) moderate in magnitude (median IFNγ Elispot of 78 SFC/10(6) PBMC at 10(8) pfu IM), but high in response rate (70% (51)Cr-release positive; 90% Elispot positive; 100% ICS positive, at 10(8) pfu IM); (ii) predominantly HIV Env-specific CD4(+) T cells, with a high proliferative capacity and durable for at least 6 months (100% LPA response rate by the IM route); (iv) dose- and route-dependent with 10(8) pfu IM being the most immunogenic treatment. Binding antibodies against gp120 and p24 were detectable in all vaccination groups with ADCC capacity detectable at the highest dose (40% positive at 10(8) pfu IM).MVA-CMDR delivered both intramuscularly and intradermally was safe, well-tolerated and elicited durable cell-mediated and humoral immune responses.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00376090

    Comparison of Eight Methods for the Extraction of Bacillus atrophaeus Spore DNA from Eleven Common Interferents and a Common Swab

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    Eight DNA extraction products or methods (Applied Biosystems PrepFiler Forensic DNA Extraction Kit; Bio-Rad Instagene Only, Bio-Rad Instagene & Spin Column Purification; EpiCentre MasterPure DNA & RNA Kit; FujiFilm QuickGene Mini80; Idaho Technologies 1-2-3 Q-Flow Kit; MoBio UltraClean Microbial DNA Isolation Kit; Sigma Extract-N-Amp Plant and Seed Kit) were adapted to facilitate extraction of DNA under BSL3 containment conditions. DNA was extracted from 12 common interferents or sample types, spiked with spores of Bacillus atropheaus. Resulting extracts were tested by real-time PCR. No one method was the best, in terms of DNA extraction, across all sample types. Statistical analysis indicated that the PrepFiler method was the best method from six dry powders (baking, biological washing, milk, plain flour, filler and talcum) and one solid (Underarm deodorant), the UltraClean method was the best from four liquids (aftershave, cola, nutrient broth, vinegar), and the MasterPure method was the best from the swab sample type. The best overall method, in terms of DNA extraction, across all sample types evaluated was the UltraClean method

    Genetic, environmental and stochastic factors in monozygotic twin discordance with a focus on epigenetic differences

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    PMCID: PMC3566971This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
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