30 research outputs found

    The pathophysiology of fluid and electrolyte balance in the older adult surgical patient

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    Background & aims: Age-related physiological changes predispose even the healthy older adult to fluid and electrolyte abnormalities which can cause morbidity and mortality. The aim of this narrative review is to highlight key aspects of age-related pathophysiological changes that affect fluid and electrolyte balance in older adults and underpin their importance in the perioperative period. Methods: The Web of Science, MEDLINE, PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched using key terms for relevant studies published in English on fluid balance in older adults during the 15 years preceding June 2013. Randomised controlled trials and large cohort studies were sought; other studieswere used when these were not available. The bibliographies of extracted papers were also searched for relevant articles. Results: Older adults are susceptible to dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities, with causes ranging from physical disability restricting access to fluid intake to iatrogenic causes including polypharmacy and unmonitored diuretic usage. Renal senescence, as well as physical and mental decline, increase this susceptibility. Older adults are also predisposed to water retention and related electrolyte abnormalities, exacerbated at times of physiological stress. Positive fluid balance has been shown to be an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Conclusions: Age-related pathophysiological changes in the handling of fluid and electrolytes make older adults undergoing surgery a high-risk group and an understanding of these changes will enable better management of fluid and electrolyte therapy in the older adult

    A critical discussion of the physics of wood‚Äďwater interactions

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    Search for dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks in ‚ąös = 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks is presented. Final states containing third-generation quarks and miss- ing transverse momentum are considered. The analysis uses 36.1 fb‚ąí1 of proton‚Äďproton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at ‚ąös = 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. No significant excess of events above the estimated backgrounds is observed. The results are in- terpreted in the framework of simplified models of spin-0 dark-matter mediators. For colour- neutral spin-0 mediators produced in association with top quarks and decaying into a pair of dark-matter particles, mediator masses below 50 GeV are excluded assuming a dark-matter candidate mass of 1 GeV and unitary couplings. For scalar and pseudoscalar mediators produced in association with bottom quarks, the search sets limits on the production cross- section of 300 times the predicted rate for mediators with masses between 10 and 50 GeV and assuming a dark-matter mass of 1 GeV and unitary coupling. Constraints on colour- charged scalar simplified models are also presented. Assuming a dark-matter particle mass of 35 GeV, mediator particles with mass below 1.1 TeV are excluded for couplings yielding a dark-matter relic density consistent with measurements

    Measurement of the W boson polarisation in ttňČt\bar{t} events from pp collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 8 TeV in the lepton + jets channel with ATLAS