24,682 research outputs found

    Holography utilizing surface plasmon resonances

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    A holographic recording medium with a substrate which has a diffraction grating composed of a number of spaced line ridges on the surface is discussed. The first layer consists of a metal with a plasma wavelength shorter than that of the selected light source. A second layer, or coating, on top of the first layer consists of a thin film of photosensitive emulsion. A diagram of the device is provided. The principles of operation are explained

    A study of space contamination by means of the surface plasma resonance effect in grating diffraction

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    Surface plasma resonance effect in diffraction gratings and relation of effect to space contamination by spacecraft instrument

    The Early Formation, Evolution and Age of the Neutron-Capture Elements in the Early Galaxy

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    Abundance observations indicate the presence of rapid-neutron capture (i.e., r-process) elements in old Galactic halo and globular cluster stars. These observations demonstrate that the earliest generations of stars in the Galaxy, responsible for neutron-capture synthesis and the progenitors of the halo stars, were rapidly evolving. Abundance comparisons among several halo stars show that the heaviest neutron-capture elements (including Ba and heavier) are consistent with a scaled solar system r-process abundance distribution, while the lighter such elements do not conform to the solar pattern. These comparisons suggest two r-process sites or at least two different sets of astrophysical conditions. The large star-to-star scatter observed in the neutron-capture/iron ratios at low metallicities -- which disappears with increasing [Fe/H] -- suggests an early, chemically unmixed and inhomogeneous Galaxy. The stellar abundances indicate a change from the r-process to the slow neutron capture (i.e., s-) process at higher metallicities in the Galaxy. The detection of thorium in halo and globular cluster stars offers a promising, independent age-dating technique that can put lower limits on the age of the Galaxy.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures; To appear in the proceedings of the 20th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics, J. C. Wheeler & H. Martel (eds.

    Nuclear Chronometers

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    Observations of metal-poor Galactic halo stars indicate that the abundance pattern of the (heaviest) neutron-capture elements is consistent with the scaled solar system r-process abundances. Utilizing the radioactive (r-process) element thorium, age determinations have been made for several of these same stars, placing constraints on both Galactic and cosmological age estimates.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures. To appear in the Proceedings of ``Cosmic Evolution'

    Galactic Cosmochronometry from Radioactive Elements in the Spectra of Very Old Metal-Poor Stars

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    In a short review of neutron-capture elemental abundances in Galactic halo stars, emphasis is placed on the use of these elements to estimate the age of the Galactic halo. Two prominent characteristics of neutron-capture elements in halo stars are their large star-to-star scatter in the overall abundance level with respect to lighter elements, and the dominance of r-process abundance patterns at lowest stellar metallicities. The r-process abundance signature potentially allows the direct determination of the age of the earliest Galactic halo nucleosynthesis events, but further developments in r-process theory, high resolution spectroscopy of very metal-poor stars, and in basic atomic data are needed to narrow the uncertainties in age estimates. Attention is brought to the importance of accurate transition probabilities in neutron-capture element cosmochronometry. Recent progress in the transition probabilities of rare earth elements is discussed, along with suggestions for future work on other species.Comment: 19 pages, 5 figures; To appear in Physica Script

    Neutron-Capture Element Trends in the Halo

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    In a brief review of abundances neutron-capture elements (Z > ~30) in metal-poor halo stars, attention is called to their star-to-star scatter, the dominance of r-process synthesis at lowest metallicities, the puzzle of the lighter members of this element group, and the possibility of a better r-/s-process discriminant.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures. To appear in the Proceedings of ``Cosmic Evolution'

    Fuselage upwash effects on RSRA rotor systems

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    The effects of RSRA fuselage configurations on rotor performance and loads have been quantified analytically by means of currently available potential flow and rotor analysis. Four configurations of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) were considered in this study. They were: (1) fuselage alone (conventional helicopter); (2) fuselage with auxiliary propulsion; (3) fuselage with wings (auxiliary lift); and (4) fuselage with both auxiliary lift propulsion. The rotor system investigated was identical to a CH-47D front rotor except that it had four instead of three blades. Two scaled-down versions of the same rotor were also analyzed to determine the effect of rotor scale on the fuselage upwash effects. The flight conditions considered for the upwash study are discussed. The potential flow models for the RSRA configuration, with and without the wings and the auxiliary propulsion system, are presented. The results of fuselage/wing/propulsion system upwash on performance and loads are also presented
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