1,481 research outputs found

    Overlapping HIV and sex-work stigma among female sex workers recruited to 14 respondent-driven sampling surveys across Zimbabwe, 2013.

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    HIV stigma can inhibit uptake of HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy as well as negatively affect mental health. Efforts to reduce discrimination against people living with HIV (LWH) have contributed to greater acceptance of the infection. Female sex workers (FSW) LWH may experience overlapping stigma due to both their work and HIV status, although this is poorly understood. We examined HIV and sex-work stigma experienced by FSW LWH in Zimbabwe. Using the SAPPH-IRe cluster-randomised trial baseline survey, we analysed the data from 1039 FSW self-reporting HIV. The women were recruited in 14 sites using respondent-driven sampling. We asked five questions to assess internalised and experienced stigma related to working as a sex worker, and the same questions were asked in reference to HIV. Among all FSW, 91% reported some form of sex-work stigma. This was not associated with sociodemographic or sex-work characteristics. Rates of sex-work stigma were higher than those of HIV-related stigma. For example, 38% reported being "talked badly about" for LWH compared with 77% for their involvement in sex work. Those who reported any sex-work stigma also reported experiencing more HIV stigma compared to those who did not report sex-work stigma, suggesting a layering effect. FSW in Zimbabwe experience stigma for their role as "immoral" women and this appears more prevalent than HIV stigma. As HIV stigma attenuates, other forms of social stigma associated with the disease may persist and continue to pose barriers to effective care

    Effects of Maternal Suicidal Ideation on Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Analysis.

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    This study aimed to assess the association between suicidal ideation among mothers living with HIV in Zimbabwe and the cognitive development of their children. Participants were mother-child dyads recruited from two rural districts in Zimbabwe. Data were collected at baseline and 12 months follow-up. Suicidal ideation was assessed using item-10 from the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to assess the association of child cognitive outcomes at follow-up (using the Mullen scales of early learning) with maternal suicidal ideation. Mothers with suicidal ideation at baseline (n = 171) tended to be younger, unmarried, experienced moderate to severe hunger, had elevated parental stress and depression symptoms compared with non-suicidal mothers (n = 391). At follow-up, emerging maternal suicidal ideation was associated with poorer child cognitive outcomes (adjusted mean difference - 6.1; 95% CI - 10.3 to - 1.8; p = 0.03). Suicidal ideation affects child cognitive development and should be addressed, particularly in HIV positive mothers

    MRI based preterm white matter injury classification: the importance of sequential imaging in determining severity of injury

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    The evolution of non-hemorrhagic white matter injury (WMI) based on sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not been well studied. Our aim was to describe sequential MRI findings in preterm infants with non-hemorrhagic WMI and to develop an MRI classification system for preterm WMI based on these findings.Eighty-two preterm infants (gestation ≤35 weeks) were retrospectively included. WMI was diagnosed and classified based on sequential cranial ultrasound (cUS) and confirmed on MRI.138 MRIs were obtained at three time-points: early (<2 weeks; n = 32), mid (2-6 weeks; n = 30) and term equivalent age (TEA; n = 76). 63 infants (77%) had 2 MRIs during the neonatal period. WMI was non-cystic in 35 and cystic in 47 infants. In infants with cystic-WMI early MRI showed extensive restricted diffusion abnormalities, cysts were already present in 3 infants; mid MRI showed focal or extensive cysts, without acute diffusion changes. A significant reduction in the size and/or extent of the cysts was observed in 32% of the infants between early/mid and TEA MRI. In 4/9 infants previously seen focal cysts were no longer identified at TEA. All infants with cystic WMI showed ≥2 additional findings at TEA: significant reduction in WM volume, mild-moderate irregular ventriculomegaly, several areas of increased signal intensity on T1-weighted-images, abnormal myelination of the PLIC, small thalami.In infants with extensive WM cysts at 2-6 weeks, cysts may be reduced in number or may even no longer be seen at TEA. A single MRI at TEA, without taking sequential cUS data and pre-TEA MRI findings into account, may underestimate the extent of WMI; based on these results we propose a new MRI classification for preterm non-hemorrhagic WMI

    The magnitude of loss to follow-up of HIV-exposed infants along the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission continuum of care: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Introduction: Although prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs are widely implemented, many children do not benefit from them because of loss to follow-up (LTFU). We conducted a systematic review to determine the magnitude of infant/baby LTFU along the PMTCT cascade. Methods: Eligible publications reported infant LTFU outcomes from standard care PMTCT programs (not intervention studies) at any stage of the cascade. Literature searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL Plus, and Maternity and Infant Care. Extracted data included setting, methods of follow-up, PMTCT regimens, and proportion and timing of LTFU. For programs in sub-Saharan Africa, random-effects meta-analysis was done using Stata v10. Because of heterogeneity, predictive intervals (PrIs; approximate 95% confidence intervals of a future study based on extent of observed heterogeneity) were computed. Results: A total of 826 papers were identified; 25 publications were eligible. Studies were published from 2001 to 2012 and were mostly from sub-Saharan Africa (three were from India, one from UK and one from Ireland). There was extensive heterogeneity in findings. Eight studies reported on LTFU of pregnant HIV-positive women between antenatal care (ANC) registration and delivery, which ranged from 10.9 to 68.1%, pooled proportion 49.08% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39.6–60.9%], and PrI 22.0–100%. Fourteen studies reported LTFU of infants within 3 months of delivery, range 4.8–75%, pooled proportion 33.9% (27.6–41.5), and PrI 15.4–74.2. Children were also lost after HIV testing; this was reported in five studies, pooled estimate 45.5% (35.9–57.6), PrI 18.7–100%. Programs that actively tracked defaulters had better retention outcomes. Conclusion: There is unacceptable infant LTFU from PMTCT programs. Countries should incorporate defaulter-tracking as standard to improve retention

    Factors Associated with Parental Non-Adoption of Infant Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis.

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    Infant male circumcision (IMC) may be more effective at preventing HIV than adult male circumcision as the procedure is carried out before the individual becomes sexually active. Successful scale-up will depend on identifying and overcoming parental concerns that may act as barriers for IMC. We conducted a systematic review to identify qualitative studies reporting on parental reasons for non-adoption of IMC for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. Thematic synthesis was subsequently conducted. Five descriptive themes were identified; these were later condensed into two main analytical themes: "poor knowledge" and "social constructs". While barriers and motivators are to some degree context specific, this review suggests that there are common themes that need to be addressed across the region if uptake of IMC for HIV prevention is to be widely adopted. Study findings are therefore likely to have broad implications for IMC roll out

    Comparative Cost of Early Infant Male Circumcision by Nurse-Midwives and Doctors in Zimbabwe

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    BACKGROUND: The 14 countries that are scaling up voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention are also considering early infant male circumcision (EIMC) to ensure longer-term reductions in HIV incidence. The cost of implementing EIMC is an important factor in scale-up decisions. We conducted a comparative cost analysis of EIMC performed by nurse-midwives and doctors using the AccuCirc device in Zimbabwe. METHODS: Between August 2013 and July 2014, nurse-midwives performed EIMC on 500 male infants using AccuCirc in a field trial. We analyzed the overall unit cost and identified key cost drivers of EIMC performed by nurse-midwives and compared these with costing data previously collected during a randomized noninferiority comparison trial of 2 devices (AccuCirc and the Mogen clamp) in which doctors performed EIMC. We assessed direct costs (consumable and nonconsumable supplies, device, personnel, associated staff training, and waste management costs) and indirect costs (capital and support personnel costs). We performed one-way sensitivity analyses to assess cost changes when we varied key component costs. RESULTS: The unit costs of EIMC performed by nurse-midwives and doctors in vertical programs were US38.87andUS38.87 and US49.77, respectively. Key cost drivers of EIMC were consumable supplies, personnel costs, and the device price. In this cost analysis, major cost drivers that explained the differences between EIMC performed by nurse-midwives and doctors were personnel and training costs, both of which were lower for nurse-midwives. CONCLUSIONS: EIMC unit costs were lower when performed by nurse-midwives compared with doctors. To minimize costs, countries planning to scale up EIMC should consider using nurse-midwives, who are in greater supply than doctors and are the main providers at the primary health care level, where most infants are born

    "I don't feel shy because I will be among others who are just like me…": The role of support groups for children perinatally infected with HIV in Zimbabwe.

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    As access to paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) continues to improve in sub-Saharan Africa, a new historically specific cohort of HIV-perinatally infected children surviving into adolescent has emerged. Although remarkable successes have been made clinically in keeping this cohort alive and in reasonable health, their social support experiences are still unknown. The research being reported here sought to explore peer social support experiences of HIV-perinatally infected children in Harare, Zimbabwe. In this article, we draw on 56 repeat in-depth interviews (IDIs) conducted in three phases and two focus group discussions (FGDs) with HIV-infected children (11-13 years). Additional interviews were held with 10 carers. Study findings suggested that both children and carers perceive support groups as a safe social space for learning and acquiring HIV information as well as gaining confidence. Additionally, findings highlighted the importance of consistency of participation. Structural and personal barriers to access and participation in support group were also identified. We conclude that support groups are a useful resource for HIV-infected children and therefore should be supported by stable funding

    "It went through the roof": an observation study exploring the rise in PrEP uptake among Zimbabwean female sex workers in response to adaptations during Covid-19

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    INTRODUCTION: Sisters with a Voice (Sisters), a programme providing community-led differentiated HIV prevention and treatment services, including condoms, HIV testing, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy linkage for sex workers, reached over 26,000 female sex workers (FSW) across Zimbabwe in 2020. Zimbabwe's initial Covid "lockdown" in March 2020 and associated movement restrictions interrupted clinical service provision for 6 weeks, particularly in mobile clinics, triggering the adaptation of services for the Covid-19 context and a scale up of differentiated service delivery (DSD) models. PrEP service delivery decentralized with shifts from clinical settings towards community/home-based, peer-led PrEP services to expand and maintain access. We hypothesize that peer-led community-based provision of PrEP services influenced both demand and supply-side determinants of PrEP uptake. We observed the effect of these adaptations on PrEP uptake among FSW accessing services in Sisters in 2020. METHODS: New FSW PrEP initiations throughout 2020 were tracked by analysing routine Sisters programme data and comparing it with national PrEP initiation data for 2020. We mapped PrEP uptake among all negative FSW attending services in Sisters alongside Covid-19 adaptations and shifts in the operating environment throughout 2020: prior to lockdown (January-March 2020), during severe restrictions (April-June 2020), subsequent easing (July-September 2020) and during drug stockouts that followed (October-December 2020). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: PrEP uptake in 2020 occurred at rates <25% (315 initiations or fewer) per month prior to the emergence of Covid-19. In response to Covid-19 restrictions, DSD models were scaled up in April 2020, including peer demand creation, community-based delivery, multi-month dispensing and the use of virtual platforms for appointment scheduling and post-PrEP initiation support. Beginning May 2020, PrEP uptake increased monthly, peaking at an initiation rate of 51% (n = 1360) in September 2020. Unexpected rise in demand coincided with national commodity shortages between October and December 2020, resulting in restriction of new initiations with sites prioritizing refills. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the impact of Covid-19 on the Sisters Programme and FSW mobility, DSD adaptations led to a large increase in PrEP initiations compared to pre-Covid levels demonstrating that a peer-led, community-based PrEP service delivery model is effective and can be adopted for long-term use
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