817 research outputs found

    Reasonable ecstasies: Shaftesbury and the languages of libertinism

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    Histories of Celebrity in Post-Revolutionary England

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    The history of celebrity has been revised in recent years. Particular claims have been made for the invention of a recognizably modern form of celebrity at various points in the ‘long 18th century.’ This putative rise of modern celebrity has been linked with the rise of a modern public sphere and in many ways is understood as an offshoot of it. Furthermore, modern celebrity is often presented as a commercial enterprise and perhaps another aspect of the equally popular claim that the 18th century witnessed a ‘consumer revolution.’ This essay argues that there is also a political history of celebrity that has its origins in traditional forms of charisma and public devotion to famous figures. The pre-modern histories of monarchy and sainthood are not irrelevant to the history of modern celebrity and these perspectives can and should be incorporated into any understanding of how celebrity emerged as a form of public notoriety and influence in the long 18th century

    Special libraries: ten essential technologies

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    This report describes ten technologies of use in special libraries

    A Simple Model for r-Process Scatter and Halo Evolution

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    Recent observations of heavy elements produced by rapid neutron capture (r-process) in the halo have shown a striking and unexpected behavior: within a single star, the relative abundances of r-process elements heavier than Eu are the same as the same as those of solar system matter, while across stars with similar metallicity Fe/H, the r/Fe ratio varies over two orders of magnitude. In this paper we present a simple analytic model which describes a star's abundances in terms of its ``ancestry,'' i.e., the number of nucleosynthesis events (e.g., supernova explosions) which contributed to the star's composition. This model leads to a very simple analytic expression for the abundance scatter versus Fe/H, which is in good agreement with the data and with more sophisticated numerical models. We investigate two classes of scenarios for r-process nucleosynthesis, one in which r-process synthesis events occur in only \sim 4% of supernovae but iron synthesis is ubiquitous, and one in which iron nucleosynthesis occurs in only about 9% of supernovae. (the Wasserburg- Qian model). We find that the predictions in these scenarios are similar for [Fe/H] \ga -2.5, but that these models can be readily distinguished observationally by measuring the dispersion in r/Fe at [Fe/H] \la -3.Comment: AASTeX, 21 pages, includes 4 figure

    Survey of children accessing HIV services in a high prevalence setting: time for adolescents to count?

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    OBJECTIVE: To establish the proportion of adolescents among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Zimbabwe who receive HIV care and support, and what clinic staff perceives to be the main problems faced by HIV-infected children and adolescents. METHODS: In July 2008, we sent a questionnaire to all 131 facilities providing HIV care in Zimbabwe. In it we requested an age breakdown of the children (aged 0-19 years) registered for care and asked what were the two major problems faced by younger children (0-5 years) and adolescents (10-19 years). FINDINGS: Nationally, 115 (88%) facilities responded. In 98 (75%) that provided complete data, 196 032 patients were registered and 24 958 (13%) of them were children. Of children under HIV care, 33% were aged 0-4 years; 25%, 5-9 years; 25%, 10-14 years; and 17%, 15-19 years. Staff highlighted differences in the problems most commonly faced by younger children and adolescents. For younger children, such problems were malnutrition and lack of appropriate drugs (cited by 46% and 40% of clinics, respectively); for adolescents they concerned psychosocial issues and poor drug adherence (cited by 56% and 36%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Interventions for the large cohort of adolescents who are receiving HIV care in Zimbabwe need to target the psychosocial concerns and poor drug adherence reported by staff as being the main concerns in this age group

    Treatment of lean and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice with a novel stable obestatin analogue alters plasma metabolite levels as detected by untargeted LC–MS metabolomics

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    INTRODUCTION: Obestatin is a controversial gastrointestinal peptide purported to have metabolic actions. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether treatment with a stable obestatin analogue (PEG-OB(Cys(10), Cys(13))) changed plasma metabolite levels firstly in lean and subsequently in diet-induced obesity (DIO) C57BL6/J mice. METHODS: Untargeted LC-HRMS metabolomics experiments were carried out in ESI + mode with plasma extracts from both groups of animals. Data were normalised, multivariate and univariate statistical analysis performed and metabolites of interest putatively identified. RESULTS: In lean mice, 39 metabolites were significantly changed by obestatin treatment and the majority of these were increased, including various C16 and C18 moieties of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and monoacylglycerol, along with vitamin A, vitamin D3, tyrosine, acetylcarnitine and 2α-(hydroxymethyl)-5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol. Decreased concentrations of glycolithocholic acid, 3-dehydroteasterone and various phospholipids were observed. In DIO mice, 25 metabolites were significantly affected and strikingly, the magnitudes of changes here were generally much greater in DIO mice than in lean mice, and in contrast, the majority of metabolite changes were decreases. Four metabolites affected in both groups included glycolithocholic acid, and three different long-chain (C18) phospholipid molecules (phosphatidylethanolamine, platelet activating factor (PAF), and monoacylglycerol). Metabolites exclusively affected in DIO mice included various phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines and fatty acyls, as well as creatine and oxidised glutathione. CONCLUSION: This investigation demonstrates that obestatin treatment affects phospholipid turnover and influences lipid homeostasis, whilst providing convincing evidence that obestatin may be acting to ameliorate diet-induced impairments in lipid metabolism, and it may influence steroid, bile acid, PAF and glutathione metabolism. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-016-1063-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users
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