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    Comments on methods for setting confidence limits

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    A Photometric Technique to Search for Be Stars in Open Clusters

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    We describe a technique to identify Be stars in open clusters using Stromgren b, y, and narrow-band Halpha photometry. We first identify the B-type stars of the cluster using a theoretical isochrone fit to the (b-y, y) color-magnitude diagram. The strongest Be stars are easily identified in a (b-y, y-Halpha) color-color diagram, but those with weaker Halpha emission (classified as possible Be star detections) may be confused with evolved or foreground stars. Here we present such photometry plus Halpha spectroscopy of members of the cluster NGC 3766 to demonstrate the accuracy of our technique. Statistical results on the relative numbers of Be and B-type stars in additional clusters will be presented in a future paper.Comment: 15 pages, 6 figures, 1 table. Accepted by Ap

    Including Systematic Uncertainties in Confidence Interval Construction for Poisson Statistics

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    One way to incorporate systematic uncertainties into the calculation of confidence intervals is by integrating over probability density functions parametrizing the uncertainties. In this note we present a development of this method which takes into account uncertainties in the prediction of background processes, uncertainties in the signal detection efficiency and background efficiency and allows for a correlation between the signal and background detection efficiencies. We implement this method with the Feldman & Cousins unified approach with and without conditioning. We present studies of coverage for the Feldman & Cousins and Neyman ordering schemes. In particular, we present two different types of coverage tests for the case where systematic uncertainties are included. To illustrate the method we show the relative effect of including systematic uncertainties the case of dark matter search as performed by modern neutrino tel escopes.Comment: 23 pages, 10 figures, replaced to match published versio

    Towards a Generalized Database System with Multiple Interfaces

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    We have applied logic programming to the problem of designing knowledge representation systems. This report describes a Generalized Database System, PRODB, that has been implemented in Prolog. It also describes two extensions to the basic PRODB core. First, knowledge representation and consistency-checking features have been added to PRODB to enhance its ability to consistently represent knowledge, especially in an Engineering domain. Second, extensions to Prolog\u27s definite clause grammar mechanism have been used to create interfaces to a knowledge base directly from grammars describing the input languages. The interface to the system is derived directly from the grammars, so this part of the system is easy to tailor. In addition, we are able to use different grammars at different times in order to have multiple interfaces to the same knowledge base system

    Nonlinear modal coupling in a high-stress doubly-clamped nanomechanical resonator

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    We present results from a study of the nonlinear intermodal coupling between different flexural vibrational modes of a single high-stress, doubly-clamped silicon nitride nanomechanical beam. The measurements were carried out at 100 mK and the beam was actuated using the magnetomotive technique. We observed the nonlinear behavior of the modes individually and also measured the coupling between them by driving the beam at multiple frequencies. We demonstrate that the different modes of the resonator are coupled to each other by the displacement induced tension in the beam, which also leads to the well known Duffing nonlinearity in doubly-clamped beams.Comment: 15 pages, 7 figure

    PhysicsGP: A Genetic Programming Approach to Event Selection

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    We present a novel multivariate classification technique based on Genetic Programming. The technique is distinct from Genetic Algorithms and offers several advantages compared to Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines. The technique optimizes a set of human-readable classifiers with respect to some user-defined performance measure. We calculate the Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension of this class of learning machines and consider a practical example: the search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson at the LHC. The resulting classifier is very fast to evaluate, human-readable, and easily portable. The software may be downloaded at: http://cern.ch/~cranmer/PhysicsGP.htmlComment: 16 pages 9 figures, 1 table. Submitted to Comput. Phys. Commu

    A Possible Massive Asteroid Belt Around zeta Lep

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    We have used the Keck I telescope to image at 11.7 microns and 17.9 microns the dust emission around zeta Lep, a main sequence A-type star at 21.5 pc from the Sun with an infrared excess. The excess is at most marginally resolved at 17.9 microns. The dust distance from the star is probably less than or equal to 6 AU, although some dust may extend to 9 AU. The mass of observed dust is \~10^22 g. Since the lifetime of dust particles is about 10,000 years because of the Poytning-Robertson effect, we robustly estimate at least 4 10^26 g must reside in parent bodies which may be asteroids if the system is in a steady state and has an age of ~300 Myr. This mass is approximately 200 times that contained within the main asteroid belt in our solar system.Comment: 12 pages, 3 figures, ApJL in pres

    Spectral identification and quantification of salts in the Atacama Desert

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    This work was part-funded by a Research Incentive Grant from The Carnegie Trust (REF: 70335) and a Royal Society of Edinburgh Research Fellowship to C. Cousins. J, Harris acknowledges funding from STFC (consolidated grant ST/N000528/1).Salt minerals are an important natural resource. The ability to quickly and remotely identify and quantify salt deposits and salt contaminated soils and sands is therefore a priority goal for the various industries and agencies that utilise salts. The advent of global hyperspectral imagery from instruments such as Hyperion on NASA’s Earth-Observing 1 satellite has opened up a new source of data that can potentially be used for just this task. This study aims to assess the ability of Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy to identify and quantify salt minerals through the use of spectral mixture analysis. The surface and near-surface soils of the Atacama Desert in Chile contain a variety of well-studied salts, which together with low cloud coverage, and high aridity, makes this region an ideal testbed for this technique. Two forms of spectral data ranging 0.35 – 2.5 μm were collected: laboratory spectra acquired using an ASD FieldSpec Pro instrument on samples from four locations in the Atacama desert known to have surface concentrations of sulfates, nitrates, chlorides and perchlorates; and images from the EO-1 satellite’s Hyperion instrument taken over the same four locations. Mineral identifications and abundances were confirmed using quantitative XRD of the physical samples. Spectral endmembers were extracted from within the laboratory and Hyperion spectral datasets and together with additional spectral library endmembers fed into a linear mixture model. The resulting identification and abundances from both dataset types were verified against the sample XRD values. Issues of spectral scale, SNR and how different mineral spectra interact are considered, and the utility of VNIR spectroscopy and Hyperion in particular for mapping specific salt concentrations in desert environments is established. Overall, SMA was successful at estimating abundances of sulfate minerals, particularly calcium sulfate, from both hyperspectral image and laboratory sample spectra, while abundance estimation of other salt phase spectral end-members was achieved with a higher degree of error.Publisher PD
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