129 research outputs found

    All bleeding stops: how we can help...

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    Rossaint and colleagues provide the critical care community with a comprehensive review of evidence-based data in an updated European guideline on management of bleeding following major trauma. In addition to reevaluating and grading recommendations carried forward from their previous work, they present new recommendations in areas such as coagulation support and monitoring, tourniquet usage, calcium, and desmopressin. Many of the recommendations are appropriately broad enough to promote the use of clinical judgment in the application of the guidelines

    Extracorporeal life support in pediatric trauma: a systematic review

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    Introduction Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was once thought to be contraindicated in trauma patients, however ECMO is now used in adult patients with post-traumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multisystem trauma. Despite acceptance as a therapy for the severely injured adult, there is a paucity of evidence supporting ECMO use in pediatric trauma patients. Methods An electronic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database of Collected Reviews from 1972 to 2018 was performed. Included studies reported on ECMO use after trauma in patients ≤18 years of age and reported outcome data. The Institute of Health Economics quality appraisal tool for case series was used to assess study quality. Results From 745 studies, four met inclusion criteria, reporting on 58 pediatric trauma patients. The age range was <1–18 years. Overall study quality was poor with only a single article of adequate quality. Twenty-nine percent of patients were cannulated at adult centers, the remaining at pediatric centers. Ninety-one percent were cannulated for ARDS and the remaining for cardiovascular collapse. Overall 60% of patients survived and the survival rate ranged from 50% to 100%. Seventy-seven percent underwent venoarterial cannulation and the remaining underwent veno-venous cannulation. Conclusion ECMO may be a therapeutic option in critically ill pediatric trauma patients. Consideration should be made for the expansion of ECMO utilization in pediatric trauma patients including its application for pediatric patients at adult trauma centers with ECMO capabilities

    Monitoring of dabigatran anticoagulation and its reversal in vitro by thrombelastography.

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    Dabigatran etexilate, a pro-drug of a direct thrombin inhibitor, was approved a few years ago for non-valvular atrial fibrillation and deep venous thrombosis. Rapid monitoring of the dabigatran level is essential in trauma and bleeding patients but the traditional plasma-based assays may not sufficiently display the effect. Furthermore, no antidote exists and reversal of the anticoagulant effect is impossible or difficult. The present study investigated the in vitro effect of dabigatran on whole blood thromboelastography (TEG) and its reversal by recombinant activated factor VII and prothrombin complex concentrate

    Pre-hospital transfusion of plasma in hemorrhaging trauma patients independently improves hemostatic competence and acidosis

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    BACKGROUND: The early use of blood products has been associated with improved patient outcomes following severe hemorrhage or traumatic injury. We aimed to investigate the influence of pre-hospital blood products (i.e. plasma and/or RBCs) on admission hemostatic properties and patient outcomes. We hypothesized that pre-hospital plasma would improve hemostatic function as evaluated by rapid thrombelastography (rTEG). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study recruiting 257 trauma patients admitted to a Level I trauma center having received either blood products pre-hospital or in-hospital within 6 hours of admission. Clinical data on patient demographics, blood biochemistry, injury severity score and mortality were collected. Admission rTEG was conducted to characterize the coagulation profile and hemostatic function. RESULTS: 75 patients received pre-hospital plasma and/or RBCs (PH group; nearly half received both RBCs and plasma) whereas 182 patients only received in-hospital blood products (RBCs, Plasma and Platelets) within 6 hours of admission (IH group). PH patients had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores, more penetrating injuries, lower systolic blood pressures, lower hemoglobin levels, lower platelet counts and greater acidosis upon ED admission than the IH group (all p < 0.05). Despite differences in type of injury and admission vitals indicating that the PH group had more signs of bleeding than the IH group, there were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality (PH 26.7% vs. IH 20.9% p = 0.31). When comparing rTEG variables between PH patients transfused with 0, 1 or 2 units of plasma, more pre-hospital plasma transfusion was tendency towards improved rTEG variables. When adjusting for pre-hospital RBC, pre-hospital plasma was associated with significantly higher rTEG MA (p = 0.012) at hospital admission. DISCUSSION: After adjusting for pre-hospital RBCs, pre-hospital plasma transfusion was independently associated with increased rTEG MA, as well as arrival indices of shock and hemodynamic instability. Besides more severe injury and worse clinical presentation, the group that received pre-hospital transfusion had early and late mortality similar to patients not transfused pre-hospital. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that early administration of plasma can provide significant hemostatic and potential survival benefit to severely hemorrhaging trauma patients

    Traumatic Endotheliopathy:A Prospective Observational Study of 424 Severely Injured Patients

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    OBJECTIVE: Investigate and confirm the association between sympathoadrenal activation, endotheliopathy and poor outcome in trauma patients. BACKGROUND: The association between sympathoadrenal activation, endotheliopathy, and poor outcome in trauma has only been demonstrated in smaller patient cohorts and animal models but needs confirmation in a large independent patient cohort. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 424 trauma patients admitted to a level 1 Trauma Center. Admission plasma levels of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and biomarkers reflecting endothelial damage (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, and sE-selectin) were measured and demography, injury type and severity, physiology, treatment, and mortality up till 28 days were recorded. RESULTS: Patients had a median ISS of 17 with 72% suffering from blunt injury. Adrenaline and noradrenaline correlated with syndecan-1 (r = 0.38, P < 0.001 and r = 0.23, P < 0.001, respectively) but adrenaline was the only independent predictor of syndecan-1 by multiple linear regression adjusted for age, injury severity score, Glascow Coma Scale, systolic blood pressure, base excess, platelet count, hemoglobin, prehospital plasma, and prehospital fluids (100 pg/mL higher adrenaline predicted 2.75 ng/mL higher syndecan-1, P < 0.001). By Cox analyses adjusted for age, sex, injury severity score, Glascow Coma Scale, base excess, platelet count and hemoglobin, adrenaline, and syndecan-1 were the only independent predictors of both <24-hours, 7-day and 28-day mortality (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, noradrenaline was an independent predictor of <24-hours mortality and thrombomodulin was an independent predictor of 7-day and 28-day mortality (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that sympathoadrenal activation was strongly and independently associated with endothelial glycocalyx and cell damage (ie, endotheliopathy) and furthermore that sympathoadrenal activation and endotheliopathy were independent predictors of mortality in trauma patients

    Simulations of an observed elevated mesoscale convective system over southern England during CSIP IOP 3

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    Simulations of an elevated mesoscale convective system (MCS) observed over southern England during the Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP) provide the first detailed modelling study of a case of elevated convection occurring in the UK. The study shows that many factors can influence the maintenance of elevated deep convection, from large-scale flow through to surface heating processes and diabatic cooling within the convective system. It is also shown that interactions and feedback mechanisms between a stable layer and the storm can act to maintain deep convection. The simulation successfully reproduced an elevated MCS above a low-level stable undercurrent, with a wave in the undercurrent linked to a rear-inflow jet (RIJ). Convection was fed from an elevated (840hPa) source layer with CAPE of about 350Jkg-1. The undercurrent in the simulation was approximately 1km deep, about half that observed. Unlike the observed MCS, a transition from elevated to surface-based convection occurred in the simulation due to the combined effects of a pre-existing large-scale θe gradient, advection and surface heating causing the system to encounter increasingly unstable low-level air and a shallower stable layer that was more susceptible to penetration by downdraughts. The transition to surface-based convection was accompanied by the development of cold-pool outflow and an increase in system velocity from about 6 to 10ms-1. Diabatic cooling from microphysical processes in the simulation enhanced the undercurrent and strengthened the RIJ. This strengthened the wave in the undercurrent and led to more extensive convection. The existence of a positive feedback process between the convection, RIJ and stable layer is discussed. Uncertainty in the synoptic scale generating errors in the undercurrent is shown to be a major source of error for convective-scale forecasts

    Use of Thromboelastography in the Evaluation and Management of Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Traumatic brain injury is associated with coagulopathy that increases mortality risk. Viscoelastic hemostatic assays such as thromboelastography (Haemonetics SA, Signy, Switzerland) provide rapid coagulopathy assessment and may be particularly useful for goal-directed treatment of traumatic brain injury patients. We conducted a systematic review to assess thromboelastography in the evaluation and management of coagulopathy in traumatic brain injury patients. Data sources: MEDLINE, PubMed Central, Embase, and CENTRAL. Study selection: Clinical studies of adult patients with traumatic brain injury (isolated or polytrauma) who were assessed by either standard thromboelastography or thromboelastography with platelet mapping plus either conventional coagulation assays or platelet function assays from January 1999 to June 2021. Data extraction: Demographics, injury mechanism and severity, diagnostic, laboratory data, therapies, and outcome data were extracted for analysis and comparison. Data synthesis: Database search revealed 1,169 sources; eight additional articles were identified by the authors. After review, 31 publications were used for qualitative analysis, and of these, 16 were used for quantitative analysis. Qualitative and quantitative analysis found unique patterns of thromboelastography and thromboelastography with platelet mapping parameters in traumatic brain injury patients. Patterns were distinct compared with healthy controls, nontraumatic brain injury trauma patients, and traumatic brain injury subpopulations including those with severe traumatic brain injury or penetrating traumatic brain injury. Abnormal thromboelastography K-time and adenosine diphosphate % inhibition on thromboelastography with platelet mapping are associated with decreased survival after traumatic brain injury. Subgroup meta-analysis of severe traumatic brain injury patients from two randomized controlled trials demonstrated improved survival when using a viscoelastic hemostatic assay-guided resuscitation strategy (odds ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.17-0.91; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Thromboelastography and thromboelastography with platelet mapping characterize coagulopathy patterns in traumatic brain injury patients. Abnormal thromboelastography profiles are associated with poor outcomes. Conversely, treatment protocols designed to normalize abnormal parameters may be associated with improved traumatic brain injury patient outcomes. Current quality of evidence in this population is low; so future efforts should evaluate viscoelastic hemostatic assay-guided hemostatic resuscitation in larger numbers of traumatic brain injury patients with specific focus on those with traumatic brain injury-associated coagulopathy

    Early and empirical high-dose cryoprecipitate for hemorrhage after traumatic injury: The CRYOSTAT-2 randomized clinical trial

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    Critical bleeding is associated with a high mortality rate in patients with trauma. Hemorrhage is exacerbated by a complex derangement of coagulation, including an acute fibrinogen deficiency. Management is fibrinogen replacement with cryoprecipitate transfusions or fibrinogen concentrate, usually administered relatively late during hemorrhage. To assess whether survival could be improved by administering an early and empirical high dose of cryoprecipitate to all patients with trauma and bleeding that required activation of a major hemorrhage protocol. CRYOSTAT-2 was an interventional, randomized, open-label, parallel-group controlled, international, multicenter study. Patients were enrolled at 26 UK and US major trauma centers from August 2017 to November 2021. Eligible patients were injured adults requiring activation of the hospital's major hemorrhage protocol with evidence of active hemorrhage, systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg at any time, and receiving at least 1 U of a blood component transfusion. Patients were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive standard care, which was the local major hemorrhage protocol (reviewed for guideline adherence), or cryoprecipitate, in which 3 pools of cryoprecipitate (6-g fibrinogen equivalent) were to be administered in addition to standard care within 90 minutes of randomization and 3 hours of injury. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 28 days in the intention-to-treat population. Among 1604 eligible patients, 799 were randomized to the cryoprecipitate group and 805 to the standard care group. Missing primary outcome data occurred in 73 patients (principally due to withdrawal of consent) and 1531 (95%) were included in the primary analysis population. The median (IQR) age of participants was 39 (26-55) years, 1251 (79%) were men, median (IQR) Injury Severity Score was 29 (18-43), 36% had penetrating injury, and 33% had systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg at hospital arrival. All-cause 28-day mortality in the intention-to-treat population was 26.1% in the standard care group vs 25.3% in the cryoprecipitate group (odds ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.75-1.23]; P = .74). There was no difference in safety outcomes or incidence of thrombotic events in the standard care vs cryoprecipitate group (12.9% vs 12.7%). Among patients with trauma and bleeding who required activation of a major hemorrhage protocol, the addition of early and empirical high-dose cryoprecipitate to standard care did not improve all cause 28-day mortality. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04704869; ISRCTN Identifier: ISRCTN14998314
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