1,818 research outputs found

    Feature detection in point processes on linear networks using nearest neighbour volumes

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    We consider the feature detection problem in the presence of clutter in point processes on linear networks. We extend the classification method developed in previous studies to this more complex geometric context, where the classical properties of a point process change and data visualization are not intuitive. We use the K-th nearest neighbour volumes distribution in linear networks for this approach. As a result, our method is suitable for analysing point patterns consisting of features and clutter as two superimposed Poisson processes on the same linear network. To illustrate the method, we present simulations and examples of road traffic accidents that resulted in injuries or deaths in two cities in Colombia

    The neural histogenetic origin of the oral granular cell tumor : an immunohistochemical evidence

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    Aims: Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a rare neoplasm that can appear in any site of the body, but most are located intraorally. Its histogenetic origin remains unclear. This report analyzes the immunoprofile of 15 cases of granular cell tumors, occurring in 13 women and 2 men and the lesions were located on the tongue or upper lip. Patient age ranged from 7 to 52. Methods: The patients demographic data and the cytological and architectural features of the lesions were analyzed in oral GCTs (n = 15). The lesions were also submitted to a panel of immunohistochemical stains with antibodies against S-100, p75, NSE, CD-68, Ki-67, Synaptofisin, HHF-35, SMA, EMA, Chromogranin, Progesterone, Androgen and Estrogen. Results: Among the fifteen cases analyzed, the most common location was the tongue (84.6%). Histologically, the tumors exhibited cellular proliferation composed mainly by polygonal cells presenting an abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. The nuclei were central, and the cell membranes were moderately clear. No mitotic figures were observed. The immunohistochemical analysis showed positivity in all cases for S-100, p75, NSE and CD-68, and no immunoreactivity for Ki-67, Synaptofisin, HHF-35, SMA, EMA, Chromogranin, Progesterone, Androgen and Estrogen. Conclusion: The immunoprofile of granular cell tumors showed nerve sheath differentiation ? lending support to their neural origin ? and helping to establish a differential diagnosis between this lesion and other oral granular cell tumors, whether benign or malignant

    Advances in the study of coke formation over zeolite catalysts in the methanol-to-hydrocarbon process

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    Methanol-to-hydrocarbon (MTH) process over acidic zeolite catalysts has been widely utilised to yield many types of hydrocarbons, some of which are eventually converted into the highly dehydrogenated (graphitized) carbonaceous species (cokes). The coking process can be divided into two parallel pathways based on the accepted hydrocarbon pool theory. From extensive investigations, it is reasonable to conclude that inner zeollite cavity/channel reactions at acidic sites generate cokes. However, coke formation and accumulation over the zeolite external surfaces play a major role in reaction deactivation as they contribute a great portion to the total coke amount. Herein we have reviewed previous literatures and included some recent works from KOPRC in understanding the nature and mechanism of coke formation, particularly during an H-ZSM-5 catalysed MTH reaction. We specially conclude that rapid aromatics formation at the zeolite crystalite edges is the main reason for later stage coke accumulation on the zeolite external surfaces. Accordingly, the catalyst deactivation is in a great certain to arise at those edge areas due to having the earliest contact with the incoming methanol reactant. The final coke structure is therefore built up with layers of poly-aromatics, as the potential sp2 carbons leading to pre-graphite structure. We have proposed a coke formation model particularly for the acidic catalyst, which we believe will be of assistance in understanding‚ÄĒand hence minimising‚ÄĒthe coke formation mechanisms

    First insights into the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from HIV-infected Mexican patients and mutations causing multidrug resistance

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The prevalence of infections with <it>Mycobacterium tuberculosis </it>(MTb) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species in HIV-infected patients in Mexico is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of MTb and NTM species in HIV-infected patients from Mexico City, to evaluate the genotypic diversity of the <it>Mycobacterium tuberculosis </it>complex strains, to determine their drug resistance profiles by colorimetric microplate Alamar Blue assay (MABA), and finally, to detect mutations present in <it>kat</it>G, <it>rpo</it>B and <it>inh</it>A genes, resulting in isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) resistance.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Of the 67 mycobacterial strains isolated, 48 were identified as MTb, 9 as <it>M. bovis</it>, 9 as <it>M. avium </it>and 1 as <it>M. intracellulare</it>. IS<it>6110</it>-RFLP of 48 MTb strains showed 27 profiles. Spoligotyping of the 48 MTb strains yielded 21 patterns, and 9 <it>M. bovis </it>strains produced 7 patterns. Eleven new spoligotypes patterns were found. A total of 40 patterns were produced from the 48 MTb strains when MIRU-VNTR was performed. Nineteen (39.6%) MTb strains were resistant to one or more drugs. One (2.1%) multidrug-resistant (MDR) strain was identified. A novel mutation was identified in a RIF-resistant strain, GAG ‚Üí TCG (Glu ‚Üí Ser) at codon 469 of <it>rpo</it>B gene.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This is the first molecular analysis of mycobacteria isolated from HIV-infected patients in Mexico, which describe the prevalence of different mycobacterial species in this population. A high genetic diversity of MTb strains was identified. New spoligotypes and MIRU-VNTR patterns as well as a novel mutation associated to RIF-resistance were found. This information will facilitate the tracking of different mycobacterial species in HIV-infected individuals, and monitoring the spread of these microorganisms, leading to more appropriate measures for tuberculosis control.</p
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