687 research outputs found

    Vanishing Geometric Discord in Non-Inertial Frames

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    We show that quantum field correlations in non-inertial frames are not as persistent as previously thought. We perform a simple calculation showing that the geometric discord, a measure of quantum correlations, does decay to zero in the infinite acceleration limit. This result is seen to be a natural and expected consequence of considering correlations in an infinite dimensional system, and it sheds doubt on the existence of useable quantum correlations in this regime. We contrast our results with previous research showing that the acceleration-induced degradation of quantum discord was not strong enough to extinguish discord in the large acceleration limit.Comment: 9 pages, revtex4, 2 figures. V2 Added journal reference and updated to published versio

    Chronic alcohol induces M2 polarization enhancing pulmonary disease caused by exposure to particulate air pollution

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    Background: Chronic alcohol consumption causes persistent oxidative stress in the lung, leading to impaired alveolar macrophage (AM) function and impaired immune responses. AMs play a critical role in protecting the lung from particulate matter (PM) inhalation by removing particulates from the airway and secreting factors which mediate airway repair. We hypothesized AM dysfunction caused by chronic alcohol consumption increases the severity of injury caused by PM inhalation. Methods: Age- and sex-matched C57BL/6 mice were fed the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing either alcohol or an isocaloric substitution (control diet) for 8 weeks. Mice from both diet groups were exposed to combustion-derived PM (CDPM) for the final 2 weeks. AM number, maturation, and polarization status were assessed by flow cytometry. Noninvasive and invasive strategies were used to assess pulmonary function and correlated with histomorphological assessments of airway structure and matrix deposition. Results: Co-exposure to alcohol and CDPM decreased AM number and maturation status (CD11c expression), while increasing markers of M2 activation (interleukin [IL]-4RőĪ, Ym1, Fizz1 expression, and IL-10 and transforming growth factor [TGF]-ő≤ production). Changes in AM function were accompanied by decreased airway compliance and increased elastance. Altered lung function was attributable to elevated collagen content localized to the small airways and loss of alveolar integrity. Intranasal administration of neutralizing antibody to TGF-ő≤ during the CDPM exposure period improved changes in airway compliance and elastance, while reducing collagen content caused by co-exposure. Conclusions: Combustion-derived PM inhalation causes enhanced disease severity in the alcoholic lung by stimulating the release of latent TGF-ő≤ stores in AMs. The combinatorial effect of elevated TGF-ő≤, M2 polarization of AMs, and increased oxidative stress impairs pulmonary function by increasing airway collagen content and compromising alveolar integrity. ¬© 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism

    Serotonin 5-HT\u3csub\u3e2\u3c/sub\u3e receptor activation prevents allergic asthma in a mouse model

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    © 2015 the American Physiological Society. Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lung characterized by airways hyper-responsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and mucus hyperproduction. Current main-stream therapies include bronchodilators that relieve bronchoconstriction and inhaled glucocorticoids to reduce inflammation. The small molecule hormone and neurotransmitter serotonin has long been known to be involved in inflammatory processes; however, its precise role in asthma is unknown. We have previously established that activation of serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A receptors has potent anti-inflammatory activity in primary cultures of vascular tissues and in the whole animal in vasculature and gut tissues. The 5-HT2A receptor agonist, (R)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine [(R)-DOI] is especially potent. In this work, we have examined the effect of (R)-DOI in an established mouse model of allergic asthma. In the ovalbumin mouse model of allergic inflammation, we demonstrate that inhalation of (R)-DOI prevents the development of many key features of allergic asthma, including AHR, mucus hyperproduction, airways inflammation, and pulmonary eosinophil recruitment. Our results highlight a likely role of the 5-HT2 receptors in allergic airways disease and suggest that 5-HT2 receptor agonists may represent an effective and novel small molecule-based therapy for asthma

    Assessment of a Novel Pediatric Resident Simulation Curriculum

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    Aim: To assess the efficacy of a newly implemented resident simulation curriculum at a medium sized pediatric residency program. Background: Many pediatric residency programs incorporate high-fidelity simulation into their curriculum, but there is limited data discussing the utility/educational impacts of a longitudinal/standardized/multimodal simulation curriculum. Several studies of simulation-based training have employed ‚Äúself-efficacy‚ÄĚ as a barometer for trainee education and performance 1,2,. The level of a person‚Äôs self-efficacy can influence their behavior and may be a pivotal factor in performance. We have implemented a newly devised standardized, multimodal resident simulation curriculum and used resident self-efficacy to assess its effectiveness. Methods: Participants were UMass Pediatric and Med/Peds residents. Implementation of our curriculum occurred at the start of the 2016-2017 academic year. Surveys were administered to all residents prior to curriculum implementation and at 6 months post-implementation. They assessed resident self-efficacy with regards to specific technical/procedural skills (i.e. running a code, performing intubation, etc.) and resident confidence in their ability to identify/manage specific pediatric disease presentations (i.e. respiratory failure, tachyarrhythmia, etc.). Data was pooled and averaged for each resident class separately. We predetermined a 10% change in self-efficacy to be a clinically significant difference. Results: 36 of 40 residents completed the initial survey and 31 completed the 6-month follow-up. PGY1 residents reported improved self-efficacy for 4 PALS-related skills and 8 pediatric case presentations. Similarly, PGY2 residents reported improved self-efficacy for 3 PALS-related skills and 6 pediatric case presentations. Conversely, PGY3/4 residents reported no significant change in self-efficacy for any survey question. Conclusions: These results suggest that our newly implemented longitudinal, standardized, multidisciplinary, multi-modal simulation curriculum has significantly improved resident self-efficacy related to core Pediatric Advanced Life-Support (PALS) skills/topics, with the greatest impact affecting our PGY1 class. Further study and curriculum development will attempt to address this issue

    Adaptation of a Vocabulary Test from British Sign Language to American Sign Language

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    This study describes the adaptation process of a vocabulary knowledge test for British Sign Language (BSL) into American Sign Language (ASL) and presents results from the first round of pilot testing with twenty deaf native ASL signers. The web-based test assesses the strength of deaf children’s vocabulary knowledge by means of different mappings of phonological form and meaning of signs. The adaptation from BSL to ASL involved nine stages, which included forming a panel of deaf/hearing experts, developing a set of new items and revising/replacing items considered ineffective, and piloting the new version. Results provide new evidence in support of the use of this methodology for assessing sign language, making a useful contribution toward the availability of tests to assess deaf children’s signed language skills

    Koliko su studenti viŇ°e medicinske Ň°kole u Bitoli upoznati s problemom infekcije HCV-om

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    Healthcare workers are at risk of occupationally-acquired viral infections such as human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV). HCV is parenterally transmitted and has been found in every part of the world. This cross-sectional study was conducted to establish the awareness and attitude about HCV infections among 210 full-time and part-time nursing students of the Medical College in Bitola, Macedonia ‚Äėfrom May to June 2009. For this purpose we used a self-administered questionnaire which consisted of three parts. The fi rst included demographic data, the second included questions about causes of infection, mode of transmission, symptoms, acute and chronic hepatitis, and prevention, and the third questions about students‚Äô attitude toward patients with suspect or confi rmed HCV infection. Full-time students showed higher HCV awareness (84 %) than part-time students (69 %). 58 % of the full-time and 79 % of the part-time students said they would not avoid professional contact with suspect or HCV infected patients. Our study has shown that even though both groups of students have a suffi cient knowledge about HCV to face future challenges, they need further education on the subject. Practical recommendations would help to reduce stigmatising behaviour still further.Zdravstveni su radnici izloŇĺeni profesionalnomu riziku od infekcije virusom humane imunodefi cijencije (HIV-om), hepatitis B virusom (HBV-om) te hepatitis C virusom (HCV-om). HCV se prenosi parenteralno i ima ga posvuda u svijetu. Ovo smo presjeńćno ispitivanje proveli da utvrdimo koliko su studenti za medicinske tehnińćare i sestre upoznati s infekcijom HCV-om i saznamo njihove stavove o tome. Ispitivanje je obuhvatilo 210 redovitih i izvanrednih studenata Visoke medicinske Ň°kole u Bitoli i trajalo je od svibnja do lipnja 2009. Za ispitivanje je rabljen opŇ°iran upitnik. Odgovori su pokazali da redoviti studenti imaju bolji uvid u predmet (s 84 % tońćnih odgovora) od izvanrednih studenata (69 %). U pogledu stava prema pacijentima 58 % redovitih i 79 % izvanrednih studenata ne izbjegava dodir s pacijentima koji su infi cirani HCV-om. Ispitivanje je pokazalo da su studenti iz obje skupine dovoljno upoznati s infekcijom HCV-om, rizińćnim ńćimbenicima i nańćinom prijenosa, ali je potrebno to znanje nadograditi

    Salve Regina Arboretum Ten Year Plan to Reach Level III Accreditation

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    The Salve Regina University Arboretum, located in Newport, Rhode Island is currently registered as a Level II arboretum and is intertwined with the city of Newport Arboretum. The university now has intentions to reach Level III status, as part of a ten-year plan. This plan was developed by the students of the Spring 2018 BIO 255: Conservation Biology course, instructed by Dr. Jameson Chace, Associate Professor of biology at Salve Regina University. As part of a curriculum geared towards civic engagement, the class focused on creating and optimizing strategies that can be applied to the ten-year plan. These strategies were applied to the plan categorically: a team to inventory the current tree collection; a team to develop formal educational programming; a team for informal educational programming; a team to establish goals for conservation initiative related to the arboretum; a team dedicated to research related to arboreta; and a team to develop a list of species of special interest to add to the arboretum in the coming years. In the following document, each team’s strategies for the ten-year plan are outlined. Each of the components of this plan incorporate means to fulfill the conditions to meet Level III arboretum status so that the arboretum can apply for official registration. The aforementioned teams were tasked with designing a foundation on which to work up from. This includes formal educational programming to be applied to classroom settings and informal educational programming which can be applied to community outreach-based settings. The teams that worked to strengthen the arboretum’s mission of conservation focused on researching trees that can fit into the current landscape while providing some sort of benefit to the surrounding flora/fauna. Further, many of the species of interest, such as the chestnut, hold historical value to the greater Rhode Island region. In all, the Salve Regina Arboretum must achieve a total of 500 unique species of trees and woody plants as part of its efforts to apply for Level III status. In addition to the programming and research performed so far by the student teams, the arboretum must also hire a curator to manage the programming and to oversee the arboretum as a whole. Additionally, the arboretum must continue to actively collaborate with other arboreta and should encourage scientific research. It is important to recognize that the Salve Regina University Arboretum has already been utilized in the field of microbiology and has gained some attention at the university as a resource for further research and investigation. This ten year plan, along with resources within in it, is designed to provide a list of potential guidelines and ideas that can be applied for the arboretum’s benefit and growth. The Salve Regina University arboretum is a continually growing and developing part of the greater Newport, Rhode Island community, and will continue to strengthen its mission and that of the university which oversees its success.https://digitalcommons.salve.edu/bio255_arboretum/1000/thumbnail.jp

    Search for charged Higgs bosons produced in vector boson fusion processes and decaying into vector boson pairs in proton‚Äďproton collisions at s‚ąö=13TeV

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    A search for charged Higgs bosons produced in vector boson fusion processes and decaying into vector bosons, using proton‚Äďproton collisions at s‚ąö=13TeV at the LHC, is reported. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 137fb‚ąí1 collected with the CMS detector. Events are selected by requiring two or three electrons or muons, moderate missing transverse momentum, and two jets with a large rapidity separation and a large dijet mass. No excess of events with respect to the standard model background predictions is observed. Model independent upper limits at 95% confidence level are reported on the product of the cross section and branching fraction for vector boson fusion production of charged Higgs bosons as a function of mass, from 200 to 3000GeV. The results are interpreted in the context of the Georgi‚ÄďMachacek model
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