7,214 research outputs found

    Modeling the physical properties in the ISM of the low-metallicity galaxy NGC4214

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    We present a model for the interstellar medium of NGC4214 with the objective to probe the physical conditions in the two main star-forming regions and their connection with the star formation activity of the galaxy. We used the spectral synthesis code Cloudy to model an HII region and the associated photodissociation region (PDR) to reproduce the emission of mid- and far-infrared fine-structure cooling lines from the Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes for these two regions. Input parameters of the model, such as elemental abundances and star formation history, are guided by earlier studies of the galaxy, and we investigated the effect of the mode in which star formation takes place (bursty or continuous) on the line emission. Furthermore, we tested the effect of adding pressure support with magnetic fields and turbulence on the line predictions. We find that this model can satisfactorily predict (within a factor of ~2) all observed lines that originate from the ionized medium ([SIV] 10.5um, [NeIII] 15.6um, [SIII] 18.7um, [SIII] 33.5um, and [OIII] 88um), with the exception of [NeII] 12.8um and [NII] 122um, which may arise from a lower ionization medium. In the PDR, the [OI] 63um, [OI] 145um, and [CII] 157um lines are matched within a factor of ~5 and work better when weak pressure support is added to the thermal pressure or when the PDR clouds are placed farther away from the HII regions and have covering factors lower than unity. Our models of the HII region agree with different evolutionary stages found in previous studies, with a more evolved, diffuse central region, and a younger, more compact southern region. However, the local PDR conditions are averaged out on the 175 pc scales that we probe and do not reflect differences observed in the star formation properties of the two regions.Comment: accepted for publication in A&

    Alien Registration- Cormier, Joseph F. (Van Buren, Aroostook County)

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    Coulomb-Volkov approach of ionization by extreme ultraviolet laser pulses in the subfemtosecond regime

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    In conditions where the interaction betweeen an atom and a short high-frequency extreme ultraviolet laser pulse is a perturbation, we show that a simple theoretical approach, based on Coulomb-Volkov-type states, can make reliable predictions for ionization. To avoid any additional approximation, we consider here a standard case : the ionization of hydrogen atoms initially in their ground state. For any field parameter, we show that the method provides accurate energy spectra of ejected electrons, including many above threshold ionization peaks, as long as the two following conditions are simultaneously fulfilled : (i) the photon energy is greater than or equal to the ionization potential ; (ii) the ionization process is not saturated. Thus, ionization of atoms or molecules by the high order harmonic laser pulses which are generated at present may be addressed through this Coulomb-Volkov treatment.Comment: 19 pages including 5 figures and figure caption

    Effects of Hyperbolic Rotation in Minkowski Space on the Modeling of Plasma Accelerators in a Lorentz Boosted Frame

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    Laser driven plasma accelerators promise much shorter particle accelerators but their development requires detailed simulations that challenge or exceed current capabilities. We report the first direct simulations of stages up to 1 TeV from simulations using a Lorentz boosted calculation frame resulting in a million times speedup, thanks to a frame boost as high as gamma=1300. Effects of the hyperbolic rotation in Minkowski space resulting from the frame boost on the laser propagation in the plasma is shown to be key in the mitigation of a numerical instability that was limiting previous attempts

    A Comparison of Synthetic Seismograms for 2D Structures: Semianalytical versus Numerical

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    Teleseismic wave fields occasionally exhibit rapid changes in travel times and waveforms over distances less than several great-circle degrees when observed at broadband arrays. These rapid changes in wave field suggest the existence of significant structural transitions occurring over scales of several hundred kilometers or less in the mid- and deep mantle. Although approximate analytical methods based on raytracing can be readily adapted to structures having arbitrarily small scale lengths, it is important to validate their accuracy against the predictions of numerical methods. Here we compare synthetics from an approximate ray-based method WKBJ modified (WKM) against the pseudospectral method for a 2D model of the S-velocity anomaly associated with the South African plume. This model consists of a uniform 3% decrease in S velocity over a broad (>10°) region of the mid- and deep mantle beneath South Africa, contiguous at its bottom with a thin (100- to 200-km-thick) zone of low velocity extending 30° westward toward South America along the core-mantle boundary. Transitions between anomalous and radially symmetric structures of the test model are sharp, occurring over l0 km or less. SV and SH wave fields synthesized by the WKM and pseudospectral methods in this model generally agree with each other well. Slight mismatches in the two methods can be understood as the result of either differences in model parameterization or the effects of asymptotic approximations in the ray-based WKM method

    Structure and dynamics of Oxide Melts and Glasses : a view from multinuclear and high temperature NMR

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    Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments allow characterizing the local structure and dynamics of oxide glasses and melts. Thanks to the development of new experiments, it now becomes possible to evidence not only the details of the coordination state of the network formers of glasses but also to characterize the nature of polyatomic molecular motifs extending over several chemical bonds. We present results involving 31P homonuclear experiments that allow description of groups of up to three phosphate units and 27Al/17O heteronuclear that allows evidencing μ3 oxygen bridges in aluminate glasses and rediscussion of the structure of high temperature melts.Comment: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (2007) in press; Also available online at: http://crmht.cnrs-orleans.fr/Intranet/Publications/?id=207

    Dynamics of coupled bosonic systems with applications to preheating

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    Coupled, multi-field models of inflation can provide several attractive features unavailable in the case of a single inflaton field. These models have a rich dynamical structure resulting from the interaction of the fields and their associated fluctuations. We present a formalism to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of coupled scalar fields. This formalism solves the problem of renormalizing interacting models in a transparent way using dimensional regularization. The evolution is generated by a renormalized effective Lagrangian which incorporates the dynamics of the mean fields and their associated fluctuations at one-loop order. We apply our method to two problems of physical interest: (i) a simple two-field model which exemplifies applications to reheating in inflation, and (ii) a supersymmetric hybrid inflation model. This second case is interesting because inflation terminates via a smooth phase transition which gives rise to a spinodal instability in one of the fields. We study the evolution of the zero mode of the fields and the energy density transfer to the fluctuations from the mean fields. We conclude that back reaction effects can be significant over a wide parameter range. In particular for the supersymmetric hybrid model we find that particle production can be suppressed due to these effects.Comment: 23 pages, 16 eps-figures, minor changes in the text, references added, accepted for publication in PR

    Zero mode in the time-dependent symmetry breaking of λϕ4\lambda\phi^4 theory

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    We apply the quartic exponential variational approximation to the symmetry breaking phenomena of scalar field in three and four dimensions. We calculate effective potential and effective action for the time-dependent system by separating the zero mode from other non-zero modes of the scalar field and treating the zero mode quantum mechanically. It is shown that the quantum mechanical properties of the zero mode play a non-trivial role in the symmetry breaking of the scalar λϕ4\lambda \phi^4 theory.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figure
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