58 research outputs found

    ALMA Observations of the T Tauri Binary System AS 205: Evidence for Molecular Winds and/or Binary Interactions

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    In this study, we present high-resolution millimeter observations of the dust and gas disk of the T Tauri star AS 205 N and its companion, AS 205 S, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The gas disk around AS 205 N, for which infrared emission spectroscopy demonstrates significant deviations from Keplerian motion that has been interpreted as evidence for a disk wind (Pontoppidan et al. 2011; Bast et al. 2011), also displays significant deviations from Keplerian disk emission in the observations presented here. Detections near both AS 205 N and S are obtained in 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO 2-1, 13CO 2-1 and C18O 2-1. The 12CO emission is extended up to 2 arcsec from AS 205N, and both 12CO and 13CO display deviations from Keplerian rotation at all angular scales. Two possible explanations for these observations hold up best to close scrutiny - tidal interaction with AS 205 S or disk winds (or a combination of the two), and we discuss these possibilities in some detail.Comment: accepted by The Astrophysical Journa

    Optical offset pointing of radio interferometers: applications at the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy

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    Optical telescopes and cameras are often used to determine the initial pointing model for radio antennas. After this initial determination, the optical systems are typically not used. The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) has implemented optical oset pointing as a standard calibration option for science observations. We report on the proof of concept testing, the method, and the typical improvements obtained over traditional radio pointing. We conclude with a brief discussion of future directions, which may oer further improved pointing at CARMA and at other facilities that require increased pointing accuracy

    Assessing molecular outflows and turbulence in the protostellar cluster Serpens South

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    Molecular outflows driven by protostellar cluster members likely impact their surroundings and contribute to turbulence, affecting subsequent star formation. The very young Serpens South cluster consists of a particularly high density and fraction of protostars, yielding a relevant case study for protostellar outflows and their impact on the cluster environment. We combined CO J=10J=1-0 observations of this region using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and the Institut de Radioastronomie Millim\'{e}trique (IRAM) 30 m single dish telescope. The combined map allows us to probe CO outflows within the central, most active region at size scales of 0.01 pc to 0.8 pc. We account for effects of line opacity and excitation temperature variations by incorporating 12^{12}CO and 13^{13}CO data for the J=10J=1-0 and J=32J=3-2 transitions (using Atacama Pathfinder Experiment and Caltech Submillimeter Observatory observations for the higher CO transitions), and we calculate mass, momentum, and energy of the molecular outflows in this region. The outflow mass loss rate, force, and luminosity, compared with diagnostics of turbulence and gravity, suggest that outflows drive a sufficient amount of energy to sustain turbulence, but not enough energy to substantially counter the gravitational potential energy and disrupt the clump. Further, we compare Serpens South with the slightly more evolved cluster NGC 1333, and we propose an empirical scenario for outflow-cluster interaction at different evolutionary stages.Comment: 26 pages, 15 figures, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journa

    NGC7538 IRS1 - an ionized jet powered by accretion

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    Analysis of high spatial resolution VLA images shows that the free-free emission from NGC7538 IRS1 is dominated by a collimated ionized wind. We have re-analyzed high angular resolution VLA archive data from 6 cm to 7 mm, and measured separately the flux density from the compact bipolar core and the extended (1.5" - 3") lobes. We find that the flux density of the core is proportional to the frequency to the power of alpha, with alpha being about 0.7. The frequency dependence of the total flux density is slightly steeper with alpha = 0.8. A massive optically thick hypercompact core with a steep density gradient can explain this frequency dependence, but it cannot explain the extremely broad recombination line velocities observed in this source. Neither can it explain why the core is bipolar rather than spherical, nor the observed decrease of 4% in the flux density in less than 10 years. An ionized wind modulated by accretion is expected to vary, because the accretion flow from the surrounding cloud will vary over time. BIMA and CARMA continuum observations at 3 mm show that the free-free emission still dominates at 3 mm. HCO+ J = 1 - 0 observations combined with FCRAO single dish data show a clear inverse P Cygni profile towards IRS1. These observations confirm that IRS1 is heavily accreting with an accretion rate of about 2 times 10(-4) solar masses per year.Comment: Accepted for Astrophysical Journal Letter

    Detection of Dense Molecular Gas in Inter-Arm Spurs in M51

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    Spiral arm spurs are prominent features that have been observed in extinction and 8μ\mum emission in nearby galaxies. In order to understand their molecular gas properties, we used the Owens Valley Radio Observatory to map the CO(J=1--0) emission in three spurs emanating from the inner northwestern spiral arm of M51. We report CO detections from all three spurs. The molecular gas mass and surface density are MH23×106_{H2} \sim3\times10^6 M_{\sun} and ΣH2\Sigma_{H2} \sim50 M_{\sun} pc2^{-2}. Thus, relative to the spiral arms, the spurs are extremely weak features. However, since the spurs are extended perpendicular to the spiral arms for \sim500 pc and contain adequate fuel for star formation, they may be the birthplace for observed inter-arm HII regions. This reduces the requirement for the significant time delay that would be otherwise needed if the inter-arm star formation was initiated in the spiral arms. Larger maps of galaxies at similar depth are required to further understand the formation and evolution of these spurs and their role in star formation - such data should be forthcoming with the new CARMA and future ALMA telescopes and can be compared to several recent numerical simulations that have been examining the evolution of spiral arm spurs.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, emulate-apj format, accepted in Ap

    Sub-arcsec Observations of NGC 7538 IRS 1: Continuum Distribution and Dynamics of Molecular Gas

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    We report new results based on the analysis of the SMA and CARMA observations of NGC 7538\,IRS\,1 at 1.3 and 3.4 mm with sub-arcsec resolutions. With angular resolutions \sim 0\farcs7, the SMA and CARMA observations show that the continuum emission at 1.3 and 3.4 mm from the hyper-compact \ion{H}{2} region IRS\,1 is dominated by a compact source with a tail-like extended structure to the southwest of IRS\,1. With a CARMA B-array image at 1.3 mm convolved to 0\farcs1, we resolve the hyper-compact \ion{H}{2} region into two components: an unresolved hyper-compact core, and a north-south extension with linear sizes of <270<270 AU and \sim2000 AU, respectively. The fine structure observed with CARMA is in good agreement with the previous VLA results at centimeter wavelengths, suggesting that the hyper-compact \ion{H}{2} region at the center of IRS\,1 is associated with an ionized bipolar outflow. We image the molecular lines OCS(19-18) and CH3_3CN(12-11) as well as 13^{13}CO(2-1) surrounding IRS\,1, showing a velocity gradient along the southwest-northeast direction. The spectral line profiles in 13^{13}CO(2-1), CO(2-1), and HCN(1-0) observed toward IRS\,1 show broad redshifted absorption, providing evidence for gas infall with rates in the range of 310×1033-10\times10^{-3} M_\odot yr1^{-1} inferred from our observations.Comment: 19 pages, 14 figure

    AB Aurigae Resolved: Evidence for Spiral Structure

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    We obtained high angular resolution (~2") images of the 13CO(J=1-0) line and 2.7 millimeter continuum emission, and slightly lower resolution images of 12CO(J=1-0) and C18O(J=1-0) line emission toward the Herbig Ae star AB Aurigae. We resolve a circumstellar disk of diameter 780 AU (FWHM) with a velocity pattern consistent with a purely rotational disk at inclination 21.5 degrees and position angle 58.6 degrees. Using Keplerian disk models, we find a central source dynamical mass of 2.8+-0.1 Msun and a cutoff radius of 615 AU for the 13CO emission. Inclination, mass, and radius determined from 12CO and C18O observations agree with those values, given optical depth and abundance effects. As a result of the high angular resolution of our observations, we confirm the existence of spiral structure suggested by near-IR scattered light images and show that the spiral arms represent density contrasts in the disk.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures, accepted ApJ Letter
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