390 research outputs found

    Mortality in celiac disease.

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    Although the prevalence rates of celiac disease tend to be very similar in different Western populations, mortality rates for this disease vary widely. In this Review we focus on the papers that have addressed this issue so far. We evaluated mortality rates in different forms of celiac disease, such as symptomatic celiac disease, unrecognized celiac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and refractory celiac disease. We also evaluated the role of possible protective factors, such as adherence to a gluten-free diet, early diagnosis and severity of clinical presentation. Finally, we noticed that the mortality rate for celiac disease seems to be higher in Southern than in Northern Europe and seems to correlate with 'national' gluten consumption. To explain these differences, we propose a hypothesis that links mortality rates to the amount of gluten consumed not only after but also before the diagnosis of celiac disease

    Systematic review with meta-analysis: Safety and efficacy of local injections of mesenchymal stem cells in perianal fistulas

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    Perianal fistulas in Crohn's disease (CD) represent a highly debilitating and difficult-to-treat condition. Given emerging supportive evidence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all trials/observational studies to establish the safety and efficacy of local injections of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The PRISMA-P statement was applied for planning and reporting, and MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov database, and ECCO 2017 proceedings were searched for published observational studies and one-arm and randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Safety was assessed in terms of acute local/systemic events, long-term events, and relatedness with MSC treatment. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of external and/or radiological closure of fistula tracks. After a review of 211 citations, 23 studies, including 696 participants, were evaluated. Four were RCTs with a total of 483 patients. Overall, fistula closure occurred in 80% of MSC-treated patients. In RCTs, this rate was 64% in the MSC arm and 37% in the control arm (relative risk (RR) = 1.54). Radiological response occurred in 83% of MSC-treated patients. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 1% of MSC-treated patients, with severe treatment-related adverse events reaching 0% over a median follow-up of 6 months. In RCTs, treatment-related adverse events occurred in 13% in the MSC arm and 24% in the control arm (RR = 0.65). The relapse rate was 0. These results suggest that a local MSC injection is safe and efficacious. Further clinical trials with standardized end-points are required to ensure the timely implementation of this new therapy in the management of perianal CD

    ACTH-dependent Cushing's Syndrome: Diagnostic Pitfalls in Concomitant Non-secreting Pituitary Adenomas

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    Objectives: To describe the possible pitfalls in correctly interpreting clinical, radiological and biochemical findings in ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. Methods: We describe a case of a pituitary adenoma visualized at MRI not correlated with an ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome. Results: Radiological imaging and hormonal testing can be misleading in suspected pituitary ACTH-related Cushing’s syndrome. Conclusion: Correct interpretation of the initial clinical presentation can help in the proper diagnosis and treatment of ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome

    The significance of duodenal mucosal atrophy in patients with common variable immunodeficiency: a clinical and histopathological study

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    Gastrointestinal manifestations and villous atrophy can be seen in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). In some patients, infectious agents may be responsible, whereas in Others, celiac diseases (CD) may be the cause. In this study, we investigate the causes and th ehistopathologic festures seen in patients with CVID. Eleven patients with CVID and villous atrophy underwent duodenal biopsies, human leukocyte antien (HLA) typing, and testing for all celiac antibodies. Fifteen patients with CVID and normal villi and 6 patients with CD but without CVID served as controls. Histologic response to a gluten-free diet (GFD) allowed a diagnosis of CD in 3 of 11 patients. In the remaining 8, the lack of a histologic response to a GFD or HLA typing excluded CD. Celiac antibodies gave conflicting results and were of no help. Polymorphonuclear infiltrates and lesions like graft-versus-host disease are seen more ofter in flat mucos aunresponsive to a GFD. However, the specificity of these findings remains to be determined and response to a GFD remains the only diagnostic criteria for CD in these patients. Villous atrophy was gluten-sensitive in 3 of 11 patients with CVID. It was not related to gluten-responsive CD in most patients

    Reduced number and function of peripheral dendritic cells in coeliac disease.

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    Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal role in shaping the immune response in both physiological and pathological conditions. In peripheral blood at least two subsets, the myeloid and plasmacytoid, have been described as having different T stimulatory functions and a variable degree of maturation. Certainly, antigen presentation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease and circulating immune cells are thought to reflect the state of immune response within the gut. Therefore,we aimed to investigate the quantitative and phenotypical modifications of peripheral bloodDC, together with their functional properties, in this pathological condition. Blood samples from 11 untreated patients before and after a course of gluten-free diet, 27 treated patients and 14 controls underwent flow-cytometric analysis, while immunomagnetically sorted DC from the CD patients and eight human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2/8+ bone marrow donors were used to evaluate maturation status through the CD83 expression, cytokine profile for interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-a by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and functional properties by mixed leucocyte reaction before and after pulsing with digested gliadin. We found that in both untreated and treated patients, a significant reduction of the entire DC population, mainly the plasmacytoid subset, in comparison to healthy controls was observed. In active disease, an impaired allogenic lymphocyte reaction and a significant reduction of IFN-a production, paralleled by the presence of a more immature status, were also demonstrated. All the latter modifications have been reverted by pulsing DC with digested gliadin

    Prevalence and natural history of potential coeliac disease in adult patients.

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    OBJECTIVE: Potential celiac disease (PCD) is a form of CD characterized by positive endomysial/tissue transglutaminase antibodies and a preserved duodenal mucosa despite a gluten-containing diet (GCD); it can evolve into flat, active CD. This evolution is, however, not certain. Our aim was to retrospectively study the prevalence and the natural history of adult patients with PCD. METHODS: The clinical notes of all 47 patients with PCD attending our clinic between September 1999 and October 2011 were retrospectively reevaluated. To study their clinical features, patients with active CD, randomly selected and matched for sex and date of birth, served as controls. Symptoms, associated diseases, familiarity, and laboratory data at diagnosis were compared. RESULTS: Prevalence of PCD among all celiac patients directly diagnosed in our center was 42/187, (1/4.4, 18.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.3-23.4%). Age at diagnosis, laboratory data, prevalence of symptoms, associated diseases, and familiarity for CD did not differ between patients with PCD and those with active CD. Some patients with PCD maintained a normal duodenal mucosa for many years and their symptoms spontaneously improved despite maintaining a GCD. CONCLUSIONS: PCD is not a rare form of CD. Having found no difference at all in age at diagnosis and clinical features between PCD and active CD could suggest that PCD is not a prodrome of CD but is a separate entity that can only subsequently evolve into active CD

    Validation of the Italian translation of the perceived stigma scale and resilience assessment in inflammatory bowel disease patients

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    BACKGROUND Stigmatization is the separation of an individual from a group due to aspects that make them different. Resilience may in turn influence the perception of stigma. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are susceptible to stigma, although data are very limited. AIM To validate an Italian translation of the IBD perceived stigma scale (PSS) in relation to patients’ resilience. METHODS Consecutive IBD outpatients were prospectively enrolled (December 2018-September 2019) in an Italian, tertiary referral, IBD center. Clinical and demographic data were collected. Stigma and resilience were evaluated through the IBD-PSS and the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, respectively. The International Quality of Life Assessment Project approach was followed to translate the IBD-PSS into Italian and to establish data quality. Higher scores represent greater perceived stigma and resilience. Multivariable analysis for factors associated with greater stigma was computed. RESULTS Overall, 126 IBD patients (mean age 46.1 ± 16.9) were enrolled. The International Quality of Life Assessment criteria for acceptable psychometric properties of the scale were satisfied, with optimal data completeness. There was no ceiling effect, whilst floor effect was present (7.1%). The discriminant validity and the internal consistency reliability were good (Cronbach alpha = 0.87). The overall internal consistency was 95%, and the test-retest reliability was excellent 0.996. The median PSS score was 0.45 (0.20-0.85). Resilience negatively correlated with perceived stigma (Spearman’s correlation = -0.18, 95% confidence intervals: -0.42-0.08, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION We herein validated the Italian translation of the PSS scale, also demonstrating that resilience negatively impacts perceived stigma

    Serum Albumin Is Inversely Associated With Portal Vein Thrombosis in Cirrhosis

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    We analyzed whether serum albumin is independently associated with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in liver cirrhosis (LC) and if a biologic plausibility exists. This study was divided into three parts. In part 1 (retrospective analysis), 753 consecutive patients with LC with ultrasound\u2010detected PVT were retrospectively analyzed. In part 2, 112 patients with LC and 56 matched controls were entered in the cross\u2010sectional study. In part 3, 5 patients with cirrhosis were entered in the in vivo study and 4 healthy subjects (HSs) were entered in the in vitro study to explore if albumin may affect platelet activation by modulating oxidative stress. In the 753 patients with LC, the prevalence of PVT was 16.7%; logistic analysis showed that only age (odds ratio [OR], 1.024; P = 0.012) and serum albumin (OR, 120.422; P = 0.0001) significantly predicted patients with PVT. Analyzing the 112 patients with LC and controls, soluble clusters of differentiation (CD)40\u2010ligand (P = 0.0238), soluble Nox2\u2010derived peptide (sNox2\u2010dp; P < 0.0001), and urinary excretion of isoprostanes (P = 0.0078) were higher in patients with LC. In LC, albumin was correlated with sCD40L (Spearman\u2019s rank correlation coefficient [rs], 120.33; P < 0.001), sNox2\u2010dp (rs, 120.57; P < 0.0001), and urinary excretion of isoprostanes (rs, 120.48; P < 0.0001) levels. The in vivo study showed a progressive decrease in platelet aggregation, sNox2\u2010dp, and urinary 8\u2010iso prostaglandin F2\u3b1\u2010III formation 2 hours and 3 days after albumin infusion. Finally, platelet aggregation, sNox2\u2010dp, and isoprostane formation significantly decreased in platelets from HSs incubated with scalar concentrations of albumin. Conclusion: Low serum albumin in LC is associated with PVT, suggesting that albumin could be a modulator of the hemostatic system through interference with mechanisms regulating platelet activation

    Carotid plaque detection improves the predictive value of CHA2DS2-VASc score in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation::The ARAPACIS Study

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    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vascular disease (VD), as assessed by history of myocardial infarction or peripheral artery disease or aortic plaque, increases stroke risk in atrial fibrillation (AF), and is a component of risk assessment using the CHA2DS2-VASc score. We investigated if systemic atherosclerosis as detected by ultrasound carotid plaque (CP) could improve the predictive value of the CHA2DS2-VASc score. METHODS: We analysed data from the ARAPACIS study, an observational study including 2027 Italian patients with non-valvular AF, in whom CP was detected using Doppler Ultrasonography. RESULTS: VD was reported in 351 (17.3%) patients while CP was detected in 16.6% patients. Adding CP to the VD definition leaded to higher VD prevalence (30.9%). During a median [IQR] follow-up time of 36months, 56 (2.8%) stroke/TIA events were recorded. Survival analysis showed that conventional VD alone did not increase the risk of stroke (Log-Rank: 0.009, p=0.924), while addition of CP to conventional VD was significantly associated to an increased risk of stroke (LR: 5.730, p=0.017). Cox regression analysis showed that VD+CP was independently associated with stroke (HR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.05-3.01, p=0.0318). Reclassification analysis showed that VD+CP allowed a significant risk reclassification when compared to VD alone in predicting stroke at 36months (NRI: 0.192, 95% CI: 0.028-0.323, p=0.032). CONCLUSIONS: In non-valvular AF patients the addition of ultrasound detection of carotid plaque to conventional VD significantly increases the predictive value of CHA2DS2-VASc score for stroke
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