3,165 research outputs found

    Reaching silicon-based NEMS performances with 3D printed nanomechanical resonators

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    The extreme miniaturization in NEMS resonators offers the possibility to reach an unprecedented resolution in high-performance mass sensing. These very low limits of detection are related to the combination of two factors: a small resonator mass and a high quality factor. The main drawback of NEMS is represented by the highly complex, multi-steps, and expensive fabrication processes. Several alternatives fabrication processes have been exploited, but they are still limited to MEMS range and very low-quality factor. Here we report the fabrication of rigid NEMS resonators with high-quality factors by a 3D printing approach. After a thermal step, we reach complex geometry printed devices composed of ceramic structures with high Young’s modulus and low damping showing performances in line with silicon-based NEMS resonators ones. We demonstrate the possibility of rapid fabrication of NEMS devices that present an effective alternative to semiconducting resonators as highly sensitive mass and force sensors

    Electron-positron energy deposition rate from neutrino pair annihilation in the equatorial plane of rapidly rotating neutron and quark stars

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    The neutrino-antineutrino annihilation into electron-positron pairs near the surface of compact general relativistic stars could play an important role in supernova explosions, neutron star collapse, or for close neutron star binaries near their last stable orbit. General relativistic effects increase the energy deposition rates due to the annihilation process. We investigate the deposition of energy and momentum due to the annihilations of neutrinos and antineutrinos in the equatorial plane of the rapidly rotating neutron and quark stars, respectively. We analyze the influence of general relativistic effects, and we obtain the general relativistic corrections to the energy and momentum deposition rates for arbitrary stationary and axisymmetric space-times. We obtain the energy and momentum deposition rates for several classes of rapidly rotating neutron stars, described by different equations of state of the neutron matter, and for quark stars, described by the MIT bag model equation of state and in the CFL (Color-Flavor-Locked) phase, respectively. Compared to the Newtonian calculations, rotation and general relativistic effects increase the total annihilation rate measured by an observer at infinity. The differences in the equations of state for neutron and quark matter also have important effects on the spatial distribution of the energy deposition rate by neutrino-antineutrino annihilation.Comment: 29 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Neutrino Trapping in a Supernova and Ion Screening

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    Neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering is reduced in dense matter because of correlations between ions. The static structure factor for a plasma of electrons and ions is calculated from Monte Carlo simulations and parameterized with a least squares fit. Our results imply a large increase in the neutrino mean free path. This strongly limits the trapping of neutrinos in a supernova by coherent neutral current interactions.Comment: 9 pages, 1 postscript figure using epsf.st

    Signal for supernova νμ\nu_\mu and ντ\nu_\tau neutrinos in water \v{C}erenkov detectors

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    We suggest that photons with energies between 5 and 10 MeV, generated by the (ν,ν′pγ\nu,\nu'p\gamma) and (ν,ν′nγ\nu,\nu'n\gamma) reactions on 16^{16}O, constitute a signal which allows a unique identification of supernova νμ\nu_\mu and ντ\nu_\tau neutrinos in water \v{C}erenkov detectors. We calculate the yield of such γ\gamma events and estimate that a few hundred of them would be detected in Superkamiokande for a supernova at 10 kpc distance.Comment: 8 pages, RevTex 3.0, figures and text available at http://www.krl.caltech.edu/preprints/MAP.htm

    Neutrino Interactions in Hot and Dense Matter

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    We study the charged and neutral current weak interaction rates relevant for the determination of neutrino opacities in dense matter found in supernovae and neutron stars. We establish an efficient formalism for calculating differential cross sections and mean free paths for interacting, asymmetric nuclear matter at arbitrary degeneracy. The formalism is valid for both charged and neutral current reactions. Strong interaction corrections are incorporated through the in-medium single particle energies at the relevant density and temperature. The effects of strong interactions on the weak interaction rates are investigated using both potential and effective field-theoretical models of matter. We investigate the relative importance of charged and neutral currents for different astrophysical situations, and also examine the influence of strangeness-bearing hyperons. Our findings show that the mean free paths are significantly altered by the effects of strong interactions and the multi-component nature of dense matter. The opacities are then discussed in the context of the evolution of the core of a protoneutron star.Comment: 41 pages, 25 figure

    Electron capture on iron group nuclei

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    We present Gamow-Teller strength distributions from shell model Monte Carlo studies of fp-shell nuclei that may play an important role in the pre-collapse evolution of supernovae. We then use these strength distributions to calculate the electron-capture cross sections and rates in the zero-momentum transfer limit. We also discuss the thermal behavior of the cross sections. We find large differences in these cross sections and rates when compared to the naive single-particle estimates. These differences need to be taken into account for improved modeling of the early stages of type II supernova evolution

    Neutrino-electron scattering in dense magnetized plasma

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    We derive exact expressions for the cross section of neutrino scattering on electrons in dense, hot stellar matter, in the presence of strong magnetic fields. Numerical calculations of the scattering cross sections at various densities, temperatures and magnetic fields, are performed. Strong, quantizing magnetic fields modify significantly the angular and energy dependence of the scattering cross section.Comment: Physical Review D, to be published, 18 pages, using REVTEX, without figures. Figures (hardcopy) available upon request from one of the authors ([email protected]

    Neutrino Spectroscopy of the Early Phase of Nearby Supernovae

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    Neutrinos emitted during stellar core collapse up to their trapping phase carry information about the stage from which the Supernova explosion process initiates. The dominant νe\nu_e emission mechanism is by electron capture on free protons and f-p shell nuclei and the spectrum of these neutrinos is a function of the ambient physical conditions within the core as well as the nuclear equation of state. The number of collapse phase νe\nu_e which can be detected by Super-Kamioka and Sudbury Neutrino Observatory from a Supernova within 1 kpc, and their generic energy spectra are given.Comment: 9 pages of text and tables plus 2 pages of figures. Accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett. on 11th Jul., 1997. Please e-mail Comments etc. to [email protected]
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