4,221 research outputs found

    Dual color plasmonic pixels create a polarization controlled nano color palette

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    Color filters based upon nanostructured metals have garnered significant interest in recent years, having been positioned as alternatives to the organic dye-based filters which provide color selectivity in image sensors, as nonfading “printing” technologies for producing images with nanometer pixel resolution, and as ultra-high-resolution, small foot-print optical storage and encoding solutions. Here, we demonstrate a plasmonic filter set with polarization-switchable color properties, based upon arrays of asymmetric cross-shaped nanoapertures in an aluminum thin-film. Acting as individual color-emitting nanopixels, the plasmonic cavity-apertures have dual-color selectivity, transmitting one of two visible colors, controlled by the polarization of the white light incident on the rear of the pixel and tuned by varying the critical dimensions of the geometry and periodicity of the array. This structural approach to switchable optical filtering enables a single nanoaperture to encode two information states within the same physical nanoaperture, an attribute we use here to create micro image displays containing duality in their optical information states

    Capillary-based multiplexed isothermal nucleic acid-based test for sexually transmitted diseases in patients

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    We demonstrate a multiplexed loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for infectious disease diagnostics, where the analytical process flow of target pathogens genomic DNA is performed manually by moving magnetic beads through a series of plugs in a capillary. Heat is provided by a water bath and the results read by the naked eye, enabling applications in low resource settings

    NAFTA\u27s Rule of Origin and its Effect on the North American Automotive Industry

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    This comment will specifically address how NAFTA\u27s rule of origin requirement will affect the North American automotive industry. To provide a thorough understanding of this topic, this comment will (1) discuss how NAFTA evolved and detail the remaining procedural steps necessary for its enactment; (2) briefly discuss the current North American automotive industry; (3) compare and contrast rule of origin requirements under previous FTAs; and (4) analyze NAFTA\u27s proposed rule of origin requirement and its potential effects on the North American automotive industry

    Polarization switchable two-color plasmonic nano-pixels for creating optical surfaces encoded with dual information states

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    We demonstrate tunable, polarization-dependent, dual-color plasmonic filters based upon arrays of asymmetric cross-shaped nano-apertures. Acting as individual color emitting nano-pixels, each aperture can selectively transmit one of 2 colors, switched by controlling the polarization of white-light incident on the rear of each pixel. By tuning the dimensions of the pixels we build a polarization sensitive color palette at resolutions far beyond the diffraction limit. Using this switchable color palette we are able to generate complex optical surfaces encoded with dual color and information states; allowing us to embed two color images within the same unit area, using the same set of nanoapertures. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only

    Frequency dependence of microflows upon acoustic interactions with fluids

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    Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs), generated on piezoelectric substrates, can interact with liquids to generate fast streaming flows. Although studied extensively, mainly phenomenologically, the effect of the SAW frequency on streaming in fluids in constrained volumes is not fully understood, resulting in sub-optimal correlations between models and experimental observations. Using microfluidic structures to reproducibly define the fluid volume, we use recent advances modeling the body force generated by SAWs to develop a deeper understanding of the effect of acoustic frequency on the magnitude of streaming flows. We implement this as a new predictive tool using a finite element model of fluid motion to establish optimized conditions for streaming. The model is corroborated experimentally over a range of different acoustic excitation frequencies enabling us to validate a design tool, linking microfluidic channel dimensions with frequencies and streaming efficiencies. We show that in typical microfluidic chambers, the length and height of the chamber are critical in determining the optimum frequency, with smaller geometries requiring higher frequencies

    Road and bridge construction across gypsum karst in England

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    Gypsum karst problems in the Permian and Triassic sequences of England have caused difficult conditions for bridge and road construction. In Northern England, the Ripon Bypass crosses Permian strata affected by active gypsum karst and severe subsidence problems. Here, the initial borehole site investigation for the road was supplemented by resistivity tomography studies. The roadway was reinforced with two layers of tensile membrane material within the earth embankment. This will prevent dangerous catastrophic collapse, but will allow sagging to show where problems exist. The River Ure Bridge was constructed across an area of subsidence pipes filled with alluvial deposits. It was built with extra strength, larger than normal foundations. If one pier fails, the bridge is designed for adjacent arches to span the gap without collapse. The bridge piers are also fitted with electronic load monitoring to warn of failure. In the Midlands area of England, road construction over Triassic gypsum has required a phase of ground improvement on the Derby Southern Bypass. Here, the gypsum caps a hill where it was formerly mined; it dips through a karstic dissolution zone into an area of complete dissolution and collapse. The road and an associated flyover were built across these ground conditions. A major grouting program before the earthworks began treated the cavities in the mine workings and the cavernous margin of the gypsum mass. Within the karstic dissolution zone, gypsum blocks and cavities along the route were identified by conductivity and resistivity geophysical surveys, excavated and backfilled. In the areas of complete dissolution and collapse, the road foundation was strengthened with vibrated stone columns and a reinforced concrete road deck was used

    Monitoring genetic population biomarkers for wastewater-based epidemiology

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    We report a rapid “sample-to-answer” platform that can be used for the quantitative monitoring of genetic biomarkers within communities through the analysis of wastewater. The assay is based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of nucleic acid biomarkers and shows for the first time the ability to rapidly quantify human-specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from raw untreated wastewater samples. mtDNA provides a model population biomarker associated with carcinogenesis including breast, renal and gastric cancers. To enable a sample-to-answer, field-based technology, we integrated a filter to remove solid impurities and perform DNA extraction and enrichment into a low cost lateral flow-based test. We demonstrated mtDNA detection over seven consecutive days, achieving a limit of detection of 40 copies of human genomic DNA per reaction volume. The assay can be performed at the site of sample collection, with minimal user intervention, yielding results within 45 min and providing a method to monitor public health from wastewater

    Expression of membrane-associated proteins within single emulsion cell facsimiles

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    MreB is a structural membrane-associated protein which is one of the key components of the bacterial cytoskeleton. Although it plays an important role in shape maintenance of rod-like bacteria, the understanding of its mechanism of action is still not fully understood. This study shows how segmented flow and microdroplet technology can be used as a new tool for biological in vitro investigation of this protein. In this paper, we demonstrate cell-free expression in a single emulsion system to express red fluorescence protein (RFP) and MreB linked RFP (MreB–RFP). We follow the aggregation and localisation of the fusion protein MreB–RFP in this artificial cell-like environment. The expression of MreB–RFP in single emulsion droplets leads to the formation of micrometer-scale protein patches distributed at the water/oil interface
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