21,839 research outputs found

    STICAP: A linear circuit analysis program with stiff systems capability. Volume 1: Theory manual

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    STICAP (Stiff Circuit Analysis Program) is a FORTRAN 4 computer program written for the CDC-6400-6600 computer series and SCOPE 3.0 operating system. It provides the circuit analyst a tool for automatically computing the transient responses and frequency responses of large linear time invariant networks, both stiff and nonstiff (algorithms and numerical integration techniques are described). The circuit description and user's program input language is engineer-oriented, making simple the task of using the program. Engineering theories underlying STICAP are examined. A user's manual is included which explains user interaction with the program and gives results of typical circuit design applications. Also, the program structure from a systems programmer's viewpoint is depicted and flow charts and other software documentation are given

    A block iterative finite element algorithm for numerical solution of the steady-state, compressible Navier-Stokes equations

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    An iterative method for numerically solving the time independent Navier-Stokes equations for viscous compressible flows is presented. The method is based upon partial application of the Gauss-Seidel principle in block form to the systems of nonlinear algebraic equations which arise in construction of finite element (Galerkin) models approximating solutions of fluid dynamic problems. The C deg-cubic element on triangles is employed for function approximation. Computational results for a free shear flow at Re = 1,000 indicate significant achievement of economy in iterative convergence rate over finite element and finite difference models which employ the customary time dependent equations and asymptotic time marching procedure to steady solution. Numerical results are in excellent agreement with those obtained for the same test problem employing time marching finite element and finite difference solution techniques

    Practice makes efficient: Effects of golf practice on brain activity

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    This study employed a test-retest design to examine changes in brain activity associated with practice of a motor skill. We recorded EEG activity from twelve right-handed recreational golfers (mean handicap: 23) as they putted 50 balls to a 2.4m distant hole, before and after a 3-day practice. We measured changes in putting performance, conscious processing, and regional EEG alpha activity. Putting performance improved and conscious processing decreased after practice. Mediation analyses revealed that performance improvements were associated with changes in EEG alpha, whereby activity in task-irrelevant cortical regions (temporal regions) was inhibited and functionally isolated from activity in task-relevant regions (central regions). These findings provide evidence for the development of greater neurophysiological efficiency with practice of a motor skill

    Eye quietness and quiet eye in expert and novice golf performance: an electrooculographic analysis

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    Quiet eye (QE) is the final ocular fixation on the target of an action (e.g., the ball in golf putting). Camerabased eye-tracking studies have consistently found longer QE durations in experts than novices; however, mechanisms underlying QE are not known. To offer a new perspective we examined the feasibility of measuring the QE using electrooculography (EOG) and developed an index to assess ocular activity across time: eye quietness (EQ). Ten expert and ten novice golfers putted 60 balls to a 2.4 m distant hole. Horizontal EOG (2ms resolution) was recorded from two electrodes placed on the outer sides of the eyes. QE duration was measured using a EOG voltage threshold and comprised the sum of the pre-movement and post-movement initiation components. EQ was computed as the standard deviation of the EOG in 0.5 s bins from –4 to +2 s, relative to backswing initiation: lower values indicate less movement of the eyes, hence greater quietness. Finally, we measured club-ball address and swing durations. T-tests showed that total QE did not differ between groups (p = .31); however, experts had marginally shorter pre-movement QE (p = .08) and longer post-movement QE (p < .001) than novices. A group × time ANOVA revealed that experts had less EQ before backswing initiation and greater EQ after backswing initiation (p = .002). QE durations were inversely correlated with EQ from –1.5 to 1 s (rs = –.48 - –.90, ps = .03 - .001). Experts had longer swing durations than novices (p = .01) and, importantly, swing durations correlated positively with post-movement QE (r = .52, p = .02) and negatively with EQ from 0.5 to 1s (r = –.63, p = .003). This study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring ocular activity using EOG and validates EQ as an index of ocular activity. Its findings challenge the dominant perspective on QE and provide new evidence that expert-novice differences in ocular activity may reflect differences in the kinematics of how experts and novices execute skills

    The reliability and validity of a field hockey skill test

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    High test retest reliability is essential in tests used for both scientific research and to monitor athletic performance. Thirty-nine (20 male and 19 female) well-trained university field hockey players volunteered to participate in the study. The reliability of the in house designed test was determined by repeating the test (3-14 days later) following full familiarisation. The validity was assessed by comparing coaches ranks of players with ranked performance on the skill test. The mean difference and confidence limits in overall skill test performance was 0.0 ± 1.0% and the standard error (confidence limits) was 2.1% (1.7 to 2.8%). The mean difference and confidence limits for the ‘decision making’ time was 0.0 ± 1.0% and the standard error (confidence limits) was 4.5% (3.6 to 6.2%). The validity correlation (Pearson) was r = 0.83 and r= 0.73 for female players and r = 0.61 and r = 0.70 for male players for overall time and ‘decision making’ time respectively. We conclude that the field hockey skill test is a reliable measure of skill performance and that it is valid as a predictor of coach assessed hockey performance, but the validity is greater for female players

    ECONOMIES OF SIZE IN U.S. CROP PRODUCTION

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    Crop Production/Industries,

    Numerical integration and other techniques for computer aided network design programming Final technical report, 1 Jan. 1970 - 1 Jan. 1971

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    Matrix method and stiffly stable algorithms in numerical integration for computer aided network design programmin

    MEASURING AND EXPLAINING THE DECLINE IN U.S. COTTON PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH

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    Tornquist input quantity indices were used to derive total and partial factor productivity measures for U.S. cotton across time, region, and scale. Total factor productivity for U.S. cotton increased .2 percent per year between 1974 and 1982. Partial productivity measures revealed that yield growth was about .6 percent and input use grew about .4 percent per year. Cotton enterprises in Alabama and Mississippi gained and those in the Texas High Plains lost competitive advantage relative to California. In 1982, very large (1750-5900 acres) and large (950-1749 acres) cotton enterprises were 2 percent more productive than medium-size enterprises (570-949 acres).Productivity Analysis,
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