165 research outputs found

    Real-Time Monitoring of \u3ci\u3eEscherichia coli\u3c/i\u3e O157:H7 Adherence to Beef Carcass Surface Tissues with a Bioluminescent Reporter

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    A method for studying bacteria that are attached to carcass surfaces would eliminate the need for exogenous sampling and would facilitate understanding the interaction of potential human food-borne pathogens with food animal tissue surfaces. We describe such a method in which we used a bioluminescent reporter strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 that was constructed by transformation with plasmid pCGLS1, an expression vector that contains a complete bacterial luciferase (lux) operon. Beef carcass surface tissues were inoculated with the bioluminescent strain, and adherent bacteria were visualized in real time by using a sensitive photon-counting camera to obtain in situ images. The reporter strain was found to luminesce from the tissue surfaces whether it was inoculated as a suspension in buffer or as a suspension in a bovine fecal slurry. With this method, areas of tissues inoculated with the reporter strain could be studied without obtaining, excising, homogenizing, and culturing multiple samples from the tissue surface. Use of the complete lux operon as the bioluminescent reporter eliminated the need to add exogenous substrate. This allowed detection and quantitation of bacterial inocula and rapid evaluation of adherence of a potential human pathogen to tissue surfaces. Following simple water rinses of inoculated carcass tissues, the attachment duration varied with different carcass surface types. On average, the percent retention of bioluminescent signal from the reporter strain was higher on lean fascia-covered tissue (54%) than on adipose fascia-covered tissue (18%) following water washing of the tissues. Bioluminescence and culture-derived viable bacterial counts were highly correlated (r2 = 0.98). Real-time assessment of microbial attachment to this complex menstruum should facilitate evaluation of carcass decontamination procedures and mechanistic studies of microbial contamination of beef carcass tissues

    World Molecular Imaging Congress 2016: Imaging Biology—Improving Therapy

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    Microscopic Delineation of Medulloblastoma Margins in a Transgenic Mouse Model Using a Topically Applied VEGFR-1 Probe

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    AbstractThe unambiguous demarcation of tumor margins is critical at the final stages in the surgical treatment of brain tumors because patient outcomes have been shown to correlate with the extent of resection. Real-time high-resolution imaging with the aid of a tumor-targeting fluorescent contrast agent has the potential to enable intraoperative differentiation of tumor versus normal tissues with accuracy approaching the current gold standard of histopathology. In this study, a monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1) was conjugated to fluorophores and evaluated as a tumor contrast agent in a transgenic mouse model of medulloblastoma. The probe was administered topically, and its efficacy as an imaging agent was evaluated in vitro using flow cytometry, as well as ex vivo on fixed and fresh tissues through immunohistochemistry and dual-axis confocal microscopy, respectively. Results show a preferential binding to tumor versus normal tissue, suggesting that a topically applied VEGFR-1 probe can potentially be used with real-time intraoperative optical sectioning microscopy to guide brain tumor resections

    Detection of non-melanoma skin cancer by in vivo fluorescence imaging with fluorocoxib A.

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    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer in the US and its incidence is increasing. The current standard of care is visual inspection by physicians and/or dermatologists, followed by skin biopsy and pathologic confirmation. We have investigated the use of in vivo fluorescence imaging using fluorocoxib A as a molecular probe for early detection and assessment of skin tumors in mouse models of NMSC. Fluorocoxib A targets the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme that is preferentially expressed by inflamed and tumor tissue, and therefore has potential to be an effective broadly active molecular biomarker for cancer detection. We tested the sensitivity of fluorocoxib A in a BCC allograft SCID hairless mouse model using a wide-field fluorescence imaging system. Subcutaneous allografts comprised of 1000 BCC cells were detectable above background. These BCC allograft mice were imaged over time and a linear correlation (R(2) = 0.8) between tumor volume and fluorocoxib A signal levels was observed. We also tested fluorocoxib A in a genetically engineered spontaneous BCC mouse model (Ptch1(+/-) K14-Cre-ER2 p53(fl/fl)), where sequential imaging of the same animals over time demonstrated that early, microscopic lesions (100 μm size) developed into visible macroscopic tumor masses over 11 to 17 days. Overall, for macroscopic tumors, the sensitivity was 88% and the specificity was 100%. For microscopic tumors, the sensitivity was 85% and specificity was 56%. These results demonstrate the potential of fluorocoxib A as an in vivo imaging agent for early detection, margin delineation and guided biopsies of NMSCs

    Heme Oxygenase-1 Deletion Affects Stress Erythropoiesis

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    BACKGROUND:Homeostatic erythropoiesis leads to the formation of mature red blood cells under non-stress conditions, and the production of new erythrocytes occurs as the need arises. In response to environmental stimuli, such as bone marrow transplantation, myelosuppression, or anemia, erythroid progenitors proliferate rapidly in a process referred to as stress erythropoiesis. We have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) deficiency leads to disrupted stress hematopoiesis. Here, we describe the specific effects of HO-1 deficiency on stress erythropoiesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We used a transplant model to induce stress conditions. In irradiated recipients that received hmox(+/-) or hmox(+/+) bone marrow cells, we evaluated (i) the erythrocyte parameters in the peripheral blood; (ii) the staining intensity of CD71-, Ter119-, and CD49d-specific surface markers during erythroblast differentiation; (iii) the patterns of histological iron staining; and (iv) the number of Mac-1(+)-cells expressing TNF-α. In the spleens of mice that received hmox(+/-) cells, we show (i) decreases in the proerythroblast, basophilic, and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations; (ii) increases in the insoluble iron levels and decreases in the soluble iron levels; (iii) increased numbers of Mac-1(+)-cells expressing TNF-α; and (iv) decreased levels of CD49d expression in the basophilic and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:As reflected by effects on secreted and cell surface proteins, HO-1 deletion likely affects stress erythropoiesis through the retention of erythroblasts in the erythroblastic islands of the spleen. Thus, HO-1 may serve as a therapeutic target for controlling erythropoiesis, and the dysregulation of HO-1 may be a predisposing condition for hematologic diseases

    Fibered Confocal Microscopy of Bladder Tumors: An ex Vivo Study

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    Background and Purpose: The inadequacy of white-light cystoscopy to detect flat bladder tumors is well recognized. Great interest exists in developing other imaging technologies to augment or supplant conventional cystoscopy. Fibered confocal microscopy offers the promise of providing in vivo histopathologic information to help distinguish malignant from benign bladder lesions. We report the initial use of this technology to visualize tumors in the human bladder. Materials and Methods: We performed ex vivo fibered confocal imaging of fresh radical cystectomy specimens using the Mauna Kea Technologies Cellvizio system. The findings were compared with results from standard histopathology. Results: The bladders of four patients were imaged using the fibered confocal microscope. Normal and neoplastic urothelium manifested differences in cellular and vascular density. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of using fibered confocal microscopy to detect histologic differences between normal and neoplastic urothelium, and establishes a foundation for the use of fiber-based confocal microscopy in clinical studies.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/78112/1/end.2008.0524.pd

    Advancing the translation of optical imaging agents for clinical imaging

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    Despite the development of a large number of promising candidates, few contrast agents for established medical imaging modalities have successfully been translated over the past decade. The emergence of new imaging contrast agents that employ biomedical optics is further complicated by the relative infancy of the field and the lack of approved imaging devices compared to more established clinical modalities such as nuclear medicine. Herein, we propose a navigational approach (as opposed to a fixed “roadmap”) for translation of optical imaging agents that is (i) proposed through consensus by four academic research programs that are part of the cooperative U54 NCI Network for Translational Research, (ii) developed through early experiences for translating optical imaging agents in order to meet distinctly varied needs in cancer diagnostics, and (iii) adaptable to the rapidly changing environment of academic medicine. We describe the pathways by which optical imaging agents are synthesized, qualified, and validated for preclinical testing, and ultimately translated for “first-in-humans” studies using investigational optical imaging devices. By identifying and adopting consensus approaches for seemingly disparate optical imaging modalities and clinical indications, we seek to establish a systematic method for navigating the ever-changing “roadmap” to most efficiently arrive at the destination of clinical adoption and improved outcome and survivorship for cancer patients

    Efficacy of cathelicidin-mimetic antimicrobial peptoids against staphylococcus aureus

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    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens associated with infection in wounds. The current standard of care uses a combination of disinfection and drainage followed by conventional antibiotics such as methicillin. Methicillin and vancomycin resistance has rendered these treatments ineffective, often causing the reemergence of infection. This study examines the use of antimicrobial peptoids (sequence-specific poly-N-substituted glycines) designed to mimic naturally occurring cationic, amphipathic host defense peptides, as an alternative to conventional antibiotics. These peptoids also show efficient and fast (<30 min) killing of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at low micromolar concentrations without having apparent cytotoxic side effects in vivo. Additionally, these novel peptoids show excellent efficacy against biofilm formation and detachment for both MSSA and MRSA. In comparison, conventional antibiotics were unable to detach or prevent formation of biofilms. One cationic 12mer, Peptoid 1, shows great promise, as it could prevent formation of and detach biofilms at concentrations as low as 1.6 μM. The use of a bioluminescent S. aureus murine incision wound model demonstrated clearance of infection in peptoid-treated mice within 8 days, conveying another advantage these peptoids have over conventional antibiotics. These results provide clear evidence of the potential for antimicrobial peptoids for the treatment of S. aureus wound infections. IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus aureus resistance is a consistent problem with a large impact on the health care system. Infections with resistant S. aureus can cause serious adverse effects and can result in death. These antimicrobial peptoids show efficient killing of bacteria both as a biofilm and as free bacteria, often doing so in less than 30 min. As such, these antimicrobials have the potential to alleviate the burden that Staphylococcus infections have on the health care system and cause better outcomes for infected patients

    Glycolytic reprogramming in macrophages and MSCs during inflammation

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    BackgroundDysregulated inflammation is associated with many skeletal diseases and disorders, such as osteolysis, non-union of fractures, osteonecrosis, osteoarthritis and orthopaedic infections. We previously showed that continuous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contaminated polyethylene particles (cPE) caused prolonged inflammation and impaired bone formation. However, the metabolic and bioenergetic processes associated with inflammation of bone are unknown. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that modulate cell metabolism and orchestrate the inflammatory responses that involve both resident and recruited cells. Glycolytic reprogramming, the shift from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to glycolysis causes inappropriate cell activation and function, resulting in dysfunctional cellular metabolism. We hypothesized that impaired immunoregulation and bone regeneration from inflammatory states are associated with glycolytic reprogramming and mitochondrial dysfunction in macrophages (Mφ) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs).MethodsWe used the Seahorse XF96 analyzer and real-time qPCR to study the bioenergetics of Mφ and MSCs exposed to cPE. To understand the oxygen consumption rate (OCR), we used Seahorse XF Cell Mito Stress Test Kit with Seahorse XF96 analyzer. Similarly, Seahorse XF Glycolytic Rate Assay Kit was used to detect the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and Seahorse XF Real-Time ATP Rate Assay kit was used to detect the real-time ATP production rates from OXPHOS and glycolysis. Real-time qPCR was performed to analyze the gene expression of key enzymes in glycolysis and mitochondrial biogenesis. We further detected the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines in Mφ and genes related to cell differentiation in MSC during the challenge of cPE.ResultsOur results demonstrated that the oxidative phosphorylation of Mφ exposed to cPE was significantly decreased when compared with the control group. We found reduced basal, maximal and ATP-production coupled respiration rates, and decreased proton leak in Mφ during challenge with cPE. Meanwhile, Mφ showed increased basal glycolysis and proton efflux rates (PER) when exposed to cPE. The percentage (%) of PER from glycolysis was higher in Mφ exposed to cPE, indicating that the contribution of the glycolytic pathway to total extracellular acidification was elevated during the challenge of cPE. In line with the results of OCR and ECAR, we found Mφ during cPE challenge showed higher glycolytic ATP (glycoATP) production rates and lower mitochondrial ATP (mitoATP) production rates which is mainly from OXPHOS. Interestingly, MSCs showed enhanced glycolysis during challenge with cPE, but no significant changes in oxygen consumption rates (OCR). In accordance, seahorse assay of real-time ATP revealed glycoATP rates were elevated while mitoATP rates showed no significant differences in MSC during challenge with cPE. Furthermore, Mφ and MSCs exposed to cPE showed upregulated gene expression levels of glycolytic regulators and Mφ exposed to cPE expressed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines.ConclusionThis study demonstrated the dysfunctional bioenergetic activity of bone marrow-derived Mφ and MSCs exposed to cPE, which could impair the immunoregulatory properties of cells in the bone niche. The underlying molecular defect related to disordered mitochondrial function could represent a potential therapeutic target during the resolution of inflammation
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