14,916 research outputs found

    The Influence of Pain on the Development of PTSD Across the Acute Post Trauma Period

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    Exposure to potentially traumatic events is fairly common among US adults, yet only a small fraction develops post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear, however, why some individuals develop PTSD and others do not. Higher pain after a traumatic injury has been associated with higher PTSD symptomology and may be a risk factor for developing PTSD. However, few studies have examined symptoms during the period immediately after a trauma to determine how they relate to PTSD outcome. The goal of this study was to identify trajectories of pain throughout the first month after a traumatic injury and examine their relation to PTSD symptoms at 1 month. A sample of (n = 88) individuals who had experienced a traumatic injury assessed their pain through daily mobile assessments for the first month after injury. Daily mobile assessments consisted of self-report surveys sent to the participants’ mobile device. A follow-up interview was conducted at 1 month after injury to assess PTSD symptomology. Using growth mixture modeling, three trajectories of pain were identified: low pain, decreasing pain, and persistent high pain. Membership to the low pain group was associated with lower PTSD, depression and disability symptoms at 1 month after injury. Membership to the high pain group was associated with higher levels of PTSD, depression and disability symptoms at 1 month. These results demonstrate that there are distinct trajectories of pain after a traumatic injury and these trajectories may relate to later symptoms of psychopathology

    Photoionization of the valence shells of the neutral tungsten atom

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    Results from large-scale theoretical cross section calculations for the total photoionization of the 4f, 5s, 5p and 6s orbitals of the neutral tungsten atom using the Dirac Coulomb R-matrix approximation (DARC: Dirac-Atomic R-matrix codes) are presented. Comparisons are made with previous theoretical methods and prior experimental measurements. In previous experiments a time-resolved dual laser approach was employed for the photo-absorption of metal vapours and photo-absorption measurements on tungsten in a solid, using synchrotron radiation. The lowest ground state level of neutral tungsten is 5p65d46s2  5DJ\rm 5p^6 5d^4 6s^2 \; {^5}D_{\it J}, with J\it J=0, and requires only a single dipole matrix for photoionization. To make a meaningful comparison with existing experimental measurements, we statistically average the large-scale theoretical PI cross sections from the levels associated with the ground state 5p65d46s2  5DJ[J=0,1,2,3,4]\rm 5p^6 5d^4 6s^2 \; {^5}D_{\it J}[{\it J}=0,1,2,3,4] levels and the \rm 5d^56s \; ^7S_3 excited metastable level. As the experiments have a self-evident metastable component in their ground state measurement, averaging over the initial levels allows for a more consistent and realistic comparison to be made. In the wider context, the absence of many detailed electron-impact excitation (EIE) experiments for tungsten and its multi-charged ion stages allows current photoionization measurements and theory to provide a road-map for future electron-impact excitation, ionization and di-electronic cross section calculations by identifying the dominant resonance structure and features across an energy range of hundreds of eV.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication in J Phys B: At. Mol. Opt. Phy

    Few-Boson Processes in the Presence of an Attractive Impurity under One-Dimensional Confinement

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    We consider a few-boson system confined to one dimension with a single distinguishable particle of lesser mass. All particle interactions are modeled with δ\delta-functions, but due to the mass imbalance the problem is nonintegrable. Universal few-body binding energies, atom-dimer and atom-trimer scattering lengths are all calculated in terms of two parameters, namely the mass ratio: mL/mHm_{\text{L}}/m_{\text{H}}, and ratio gHH/gHLg_{\text{HH}}/g_{\text{HL}} of the δ\delta-function couplings. We specifically identify the values of these ratios for which the atom-dimer or atom-trimer scattering lengths vanish or diverge. We identify regions in this parameter space in which various few-body inelastic process become energetically allowed. In the Tonks-Girardeau limit (gHHg_{\text{HH}}\rightarrow \infty), our results are relevant to experiments involving trapped fermions with an impurity atom

    PURSUING EFFICIENCY WHILE MAINTAINING OUTREACH: BANK PRIVATIZATION IN TANZANIA

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    Profitability improvements after the privatization of a large state-owned bank might come at the expense of reduced access to financial services for some groups, especially the rural poor. The privatization of Tanzania's National Bank of Commerce provides a unique episode for studying this issue. The bank was split into the "new" National Bank of Commerce, a commercial bank that assumed most of the original bank's assets and liabilities, and the National Microfinance Bank, which assumed most of the branch network and the mandate to foster access to financial services. The new National Bank of Commerce's profitability and portfolio quality improved although credit growth was slow, in line with privatization experiences in other developing countries. Finding a buyer for the National Microfinance Bank proved very difficult, although after years under contract management by private banking consultants, Rabobank of the Netherlands emerged as a purchaser. Profitability has since improved and lending has slowly grown, while the share of non-performing loans remains low.access to banking; access to banking services; access to financial services; access to services; Accounting; Agricultural Bank; asset allocation; asset portfolio; ATMs

    Magnetic compressibility and ion-temperature-gradient-driven microinstabilities in magnetically confined plasmas

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    The electromagnetic theory of the strongly driven ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas is developed. Stabilizing and destabilizing effects are identified, and a critical βe\beta_{e} (the ratio of the electron to magnetic pressure) for stabilization of the toroidal branch of the mode is calculated for magnetic equilibria independent of the coordinate along the magnetic field. Its scaling is βeLTe/R,\beta_{e}\sim L_{Te}/R, where LTeL_{Te} is the characteristic electron temperature gradient length, and RR the major radius of the torus. We conjecture that a fast particle population can cause a similar stabilization due to its contribution to the equilibrium pressure gradient. For sheared equilibria, the boundary of marginal stability of the electromagnetic correction to the electrostatic mode is also given. For a general magnetic equilibrium, we find a critical length (for electromagnetic stabilization) of the extent of the unfavourable curvature along the magnetic field. This is a decreasing function of the local magnetic shear

    Differential equations for the cuspoid canonical integrals

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    Differential equations satisfied by the cuspoid canonical integrals I_n(a) are obtained for arbitrary values of n≥2, where n−1 is the codimension of the singularity and a=(ɑ_1,ɑ_2,...,ɑ_(n−1)). A set of linear coupled ordinary differential equations is derived for each step in the sequence I_n(0,0,...,0,0) →I_n(0,0,...,0,ɑ_(n−1)) →I_n(0,0,...,ɑ_(n−2),ɑ_(n−1)) →...→I_n(0,ɑ_2,...,ɑ_(n−2),ɑ_(n−1)) →I_n(ɑ_1,ɑ_2,...,ɑ_n−2,ɑ_(n−1)). The initial conditions for a given step are obtained from the solutions of the previous step. As examples of the formalism, the differential equations for n=2 (fold), n=3 (cusp), n=4 (swallowtail), and n=5 (butterfly) are given explicitly. In addition, iterative and algebraic methods are described for determining the parameters a that are required in the uniform asymptotic cuspoid approximation for oscillating integrals with many coalescing saddle points. The results in this paper unify and generalize previous researches on the properties of the cuspoid canonical integrals and their partial derivatives

    Measuring Well-Being: A Review of Instruments

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    Interest in the study of psychological health and well-being has increased significantly in recent decades. A variety of conceptualizations of psychological health have been proposed including hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, quality-of-life, and wellness approaches. Although instruments for measuring constructs associated with each of these approaches have been developed, there has been no comprehensive review of well-being measures. The present literature review was undertaken to identify self-report instruments measuring well-being or closely related constructs (i.e., quality of life and wellness) and critically evaluate them with regard to their conceptual basis and psychometric properties. Through a literature search, we identified 42 instruments that varied significantly in length, psychometric properties, and their conceptualization and operationalization of well-being. Results suggest that there is considerable disagreement regarding how to properly understand and measure well-being. Research and clinical implications are discussed
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