4,103 research outputs found

    Data Mining a Medieval Medical Text Reveals Patterns in Ingredient Choice That Reflect Biological Activity against Infectious Agents

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    We used established methodologies from network science to identify patterns in medicinal ingredient combinations in a key medieval text, the 15th-century Lylye of Medicynes, focusing on recipes for topical treatments for symptoms of microbial infection. We conducted experiments screening the antimicrobial activity of selected ingredients. These experiments revealed interesting examples of ingredients that potentiated or interfered with each other’s activity and that would be useful bases for future, more detailed experiments. Our results highlight (i) the potential to use methodologies from network science to analyze medieval data sets and detect patterns of ingredient combination, (ii) the potential of interdisciplinary collaboration to reveal different aspects of the ethnopharmacology of historical medical texts, and (iii) the potential development of novel therapeutics inspired by premodern remedies in a time of increased need for new antibiotics.The pharmacopeia used by physicians and laypeople in medieval Europe has largely been dismissed as placebo or superstition. While we now recognize that some of the materia medica used by medieval physicians could have had useful biological properties, research in this area is limited by the labor-intensive process of searching and interpreting historical medical texts. Here, we demonstrate the potential power of turning medieval medical texts into contextualized electronic databases amenable to exploration by the use of an algorithm. We used established methodologies from network science to reveal patterns in ingredient selection and usage in a key text, the 15th-century Lylye of Medicynes, focusing on remedies to treat symptoms of microbial infection. In providing a worked example of data-driven textual analysis, we demonstrate the potential of this approach to encourage interdisciplinary collaboration and to shine a new light on the ethnopharmacology of historical medical texts

    An infinitesimally nonrigid polyhedron with nonstationary volume in the Lobachevsky 3-space

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    We give an example of an infinitesimally nonrigid polyhedron in the Lobachevsky 3-space and construct an infinitesimal flex of that polyhedron such that the volume of the polyhedron isn't stationary under the flex.Comment: 10 pages, 2 Postscript figure

    Linking routinely collected social work, education and health data to enable monitoring of the health and health care of school-aged children in state care (‘looked after children’) in Scotland: a national demonstration project

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    Background and objectives: Children in state care (‘looked after children’) have poorer health than children who are not looked after. Recent developments in Scotland and elsewhere have aimed to improve services and outcomes for looked after children. Routine monitoring of the health outcomes of looked after children compared to those of their non-looked after peers is currently lacking. Developing capacity for comparative monitoring of population based outcomes based on linkage of routinely collected administrative data has been identified as a priority. To our knowledge there are no existing population based data linkage studies providing data on the health of looked after and non-looked after children at national level. Smaller scale studies that are available generally provide very limited information on linkage methods and hence do not allow scrutiny of bias that may be introduced through the linkage process. Study design and methods: National demonstration project testing the feasibility of linking routinely collected looked after children, education, and health data. Participants: All children in publicly funded school in Scotland in 2011/12. Results: Linkage between looked after children data and the national pupil census classified 10,009 (1.5%) and 1,757 (0.3%) of 670,952 children as, respectively, currently and previously looked after. Recording of the unique pupil identifier (Scottish Candidate Number, SCN) on looked after children returns is incomplete, with 66% of looked after records for 2011/12 for children of possible school age containing a valid SCN. This will have resulted in some under-ascertainment of currently and, particularly, previously looked after children within the general pupil population. Further linkage of the pupil census to the NHS Scotland master patient index demonstrated that a safe link to the child’s unique health service (Community Health Index, CHI) number could be obtained for a very high proportion of children in each group (94%, 95%, and 95% of children classified as currently, previously, and non-looked after respectively). In general linkage rates were higher for older children and those living in more affluent areas. Within the looked after group, linkage rates were highest for children with the fewest placements and for those in permanent fostering. Conclusions: This novel data linkage demonstrates the feasibility of monitoring population based health outcomes of school aged looked after and non-looked after children using linked routine administrative data. Improved recording of the unique pupil identifier number on looked after data returns would be beneficial. Extending the range of personal identifiers on looked after children returns would enable linkage to health data for looked after children who are not in publicly funded schooling (i.e. those who are pre- or post-school, home schooled, or in independent schooling)

    Simultaneous Triggered Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injection of Short-Lived Radioisotopes by a Supernova Shock Wave

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    Cosmochemical evidence for the existence of short-lived radioisotopes (SLRI) such as 26^{26}Al and 60^{60}Fe at the time of the formation of primitive meteorites requires that these isotopes were synthesized in a massive star and then incorporated into chondrites within ∼106\sim 10^6 yr. A supernova shock wave has long been hypothesized to have transported the SLRI to the presolar dense cloud core, triggered cloud collapse, and injected the isotopes. Previous numerical calculations have shown that this scenario is plausible when the shock wave and dense cloud core are assumed to be isothermal at ∼10\sim 10 K, but not when compressional heating to ∼1000\sim 1000 K is assumed. We show here for the first time that when calculated with the FLASH2.5 adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hydrodynamics code, a 20 km/sec shock wave can indeed trigger the collapse of a 1 M⊙M_\odot cloud while simultaneously injecting shock wave isotopes into the collapsing cloud, provided that cooling by molecular species such as H2_2O, CO2_2, and H2_2 is included. These calculations imply that the supernova trigger hypothesis is the most likely mechanism for delivering the SLRI present during the formation of the solar system.Comment: 12 pages, 4 color figures. Astrophysical Journal Letters (in press

    Volumes of polytopes in spaces of constant curvature

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    We overview the volume calculations for polyhedra in Euclidean, spherical and hyperbolic spaces. We prove the Sforza formula for the volume of an arbitrary tetrahedron in H3H^3 and S3S^3. We also present some results, which provide a solution for Seidel problem on the volume of non-Euclidean tetrahedron. Finally, we consider a convex hyperbolic quadrilateral inscribed in a circle, horocycle or one branch of equidistant curve. This is a natural hyperbolic analog of the cyclic quadrilateral in the Euclidean plane. We find a few versions of the Brahmagupta formula for the area of such quadrilateral. We also present a formula for the area of a hyperbolic trapezoid.Comment: 22 pages, 9 figures, 58 reference

    Insurance as maladaptation: Resilience and the 'business as usual' paradox

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    Insurance and compensation are cited as critical elements of resilience to natural and non-natural hazards alike. As a strategy of risk management, it emphasises peace of mind, financial recompense and the swift restoration of a ‘business as usual’ status for civil, social and commercial life. Yet despite the contribution of insurance to risk management, the synergies with progressive or adaptive articulations of resilience are not sufficiently explicated. This paper explores the fundamental contradictions of insurance as a form of resilience through a study of flood risk management. It demonstrates how insurance regimes serve to structurally embed risky behaviour and inhibit change after detrimental events. As such, transformative interpretations of resilience conflict with the long-standing principles and operational norms of insurance that privilege normality. The paper concludes that, despite its currency within resilience discourses, insurance is maladaptive and that insurance regimes reinforce exposure and vulnerability through underwriting a return to the ‘status-quo’ rather than enabling adaptive behaviour

    A humanisation approach for the management of Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobility Type (JHS/EDS-HT).

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    Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobility Type (JHS/EDS-HT) is a complex and multisystemic condition which significantly impacts on a person's health and well-being and is challenging for health professionals (HPs) to manage. People with JHS/EDS-HT and HPs recognise the individual nature and the complexities of the condition. There is a requirement to understand the condition within the context of the individual human dimensions of illness and healing. The aim of this paper is to explore the management of this condition using a theoretical model referred to as the Humanisation Framework.  It is suggested that using the philosophical dimensions of this framework will empower HPs and those with JHS/EDS-HT to work together to proactively manage this condition. The eight dimensions of the Humanisation Framework facilitate an experiential understanding of the person within their context and environment, providing a constructive adjunct to the evidence-based management of those with JHS/EDS-HT. The humanisation framework was developed for health and social care and uses the philosophy behind well-being and what makes well-being possible. This paper explores how HPs may use aspects of the framework to understand the condition and empower and motivate those with JHS/EDS-HT to be active participants in their own well-being
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