45 research outputs found

    A novel tension relief technique to aid the primary closureof traumatic equine wounds under excessive tension

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    Background: To achieve an excellent functional and cosmetic result, primary closure is preferred over leaving wounds to heal by secondary intention. However, traumatic wounds are often under excessive tension during wound closure and incorrect suture technique can compromise microcirculation, leading to skin necrosis and impaired wound healing. Objective: To describe an inexpensive and effective tension relief technique that helps the successful primary closure of a variety of equine wounds at high risk of dehiscence. Study design: Retrospective case series. Methods: All wounds that were managed with the Tension Tile System (TTS) at fourEquine Hospitals between March 2017 and May 2021 were evaluated. The wounds were classified according to various criteria including anatomical location, time elapsed prior to surgery, depth of wound and post-surgical use of immobilisation. Outcome criteria were based on the success of primary intention healing. The duration of convalescence (weeks) after surgery was also recorded. Results: During the study period, the TTS was used in 191/860 (22%) wounds repaired under general anaesthesia or standing sedation. Overall, primary intention healing (Group A) was achieved in 132 of 191 cases (69%, CI 62%–75%), with partial dehiscence (Group B) in a further 30/191 cases (16%, CI 11%–22%). Severe dehiscence (Group C) was recorded in 29/191 cases (15%, CI 11%–21%). The median convalescence time was 4 weeks (Range 3–15, interquartile range 4–6) in Group A. Main limitations: Retrospective nature of the study and subjective outcome assessment. The technique was applied to wounds under significant tension; however, this was based on a subjective assessment by the surgeons involved. Conclusions: The Tension Tile System is an economical and effective technique for challenging equine wounds under tension, in a variety of anatomical locations

    Seismicity at the Castor gas reservoir driven by pore pressure diffusion and asperities loading

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    We are thankful to Dr. J. V. Cantavella and IGN for providing waveform data and metadata of the network ES. S.C. and P.N. received funding by the European Union RFCS project PostMinQuake grant 899192. J.A.L.-C. was financed by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skodowska-Curie grant agreement 754446 and UGR Research and Knowledge Transfer Found-Athenea3i and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) - Projektnummer (407141557). D.S. received funding by the Spanish National FEDER/MINECO Project PID2019-109608GB-I00/AEI/10.13039/501100011033, FEDER/Junta de Andalucia project A-RNM-421-UGR18 and Research group RNM104 of the Junta de Andalucia. F.G. was financed by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme under the Marie Skodowska Curie Grant agreement (790900).The 2013 seismic sequence at the Castor injection platform offshore Spain, including three earthquakes of magnitude 4.1, occurred during the initial filling of a planned Underground Gas Storage facility. The Castor sequence is one of the most important cases of induced seismicity in Europe and a rare example of seismicity induced by gas injection into a depleted oil field. Here we use advanced seismological techniques applied to an enhanced waveform dataset, to resolve the geometry of the faults, develop a greatly enlarged seismicity catalog and record details of the rupture kinematics. The sequence occurred by progressive fault failure and unlocking, with seismicity initially migrating away from the injection points, triggered by pore pressure diffusion, and then back again, breaking larger asperities loaded to higher stress and producing the largest earthquakes. Seismicity occurred almost exclusively on a secondary fault, located below the reservoir, dipping opposite from the reservoir bounding fault.European Union RFCS project PostMinQuake grant 899192European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skodowska-Curie grant 754446UGR Research and Knowledge Transfer Found-Athenea3iGerman Research Foundation (DFG) 407141557Spanish National FEDER/MINECO Project PID2019-109608GB-I00/AEI/10.13039/501100011033FEDER/Junta de Andalucia project A-RNM-421-UGR18Junta de Andalucia RNM104European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme under the Marie Skodowska Curie Grant 79090

    Soil erosion modelling: a global review and statistical analysis

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    To gain a better understanding of the global application of soil erosion prediction models, we comprehensively reviewed relevant peer-reviewed research literature on soil-erosion modelling published between 1994 and 2017. We aimed to identify (i) the processes and models most frequently addressed in the literature, (ii) the regions within which models are primarily applied, (iii) the regions which remain unaddressed and why, and (iv) how frequently studies are conducted to validate/evaluate model outcomes relative to measured data. To perform this task, we combined the collective knowledge of 67 soil-erosion scientists from 25 countries. The resulting database, named ‘Global Applications of Soil Erosion Modelling Tracker (GASEMT)’, includes 3030 individual modelling records from 126 countries, encompassing all continents (except Antarctica). Out of the 8471 articles identified as potentially relevant, we reviewed 1697 appropriate articles and systematically evaluated and transferred 42 relevant attributes into the database. This GASEMT database provides comprehensive insights into the state-of-the-art of soil- erosion models and model applications worldwide. This database intends to support the upcoming country-based United Nations global soil-erosion assessment in addition to helping to inform soil erosion research priorities by building a foundation for future targeted, in-depth analyses. GASEMT is an open-source database available to the entire user-community to develop research, rectify errors, and make future expansions.</p

    Soil erosion modelling: a bibliometric analysis

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    Soil erosion can present a major threat to agriculture due to loss of soil, nutrients, and organic carbon. Therefore, soil erosion modelling is one of the steps used to plan suitable soil protection measures and detect erosion hotspots. A bibliometric analysis of this topic can reveal research patterns and soil erosion modelling characteristics that can help identify steps needed to enhance the research conducted in this field. Therefore, a detailed bibliometric analysis, including investigation of collaboration networks and citation patterns, should be conducted. The updated version of the Global Applications of Soil Erosion Modelling Tracker (GASEMT) database contains information about citation characteristics and publication type. Here, we investigated the impact of the number of authors, the publication type and the selected journal on the number of citations. Generalized boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to evaluate the most relevant variables related to soil erosion modelling. Additionally, bibliometric networks were analysed and visualized. This study revealed that the selection of the soil erosion model has the largest impact on the number of publication citations, followed by the modelling scale and the publication's CiteScore. Some of the other GASEMT database attributes such as model calibration and validation have negligible influence on the number of citations according to the BRT model. Although it is true that studies that conduct calibration, on average, received around 30% more citations, than studies where calibration was not performed. Moreover, the bibliographic coupling and citation networks show a clear continental pattern, although the co-authorship network does not show the same characteristics. Therefore, soil erosion modellers should conduct even more comprehensive review of past studies and focus not just on the research conducted in the same country or continent. Moreover, when evaluating soil erosion models, an additional focus should be given to field measurements, model calibration, performance assessment and uncertainty of modelling results. The results of this study indicate that these GASEMT database attributes had smaller impact on the number of citations, according to the BRT model, than anticipated, which could suggest that these attributes should be given additional attention by the soil erosion modelling community. This study provides a kind of bibliographic benchmark for soil erosion modelling research papers as modellers can estimate the influence of their paper

    Identification of a new R3 MYB type repressor and functional characterization of the members of the MBW transcriptional complex involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in eggplant (S. Melongena L.)

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    Here we focus on the highly conserved MYB-bHLH-WD repeat (MBW) transcriptional complex model in eggplant, which is pivotal in the transcriptional regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Through a genome-wide approach performed on the recently released Eggplant Genome (cv. 67/3) previously identified, and reconfirmed by us, members belonging to the MBW complex (SmelANT1, SmelAN2, SmelJAF13, SmelAN1) were functionally characterized. Furthermore, a regulatory R3 MYB type repressor (SmelMYBL1), never reported before, was identified and characterized as well. Through a qPCR approach, we revealed specific transcriptional patterns of candidate genes in different plant tissue/organs at two stages of fruit development. Two strategies were adopted for investigating the interactions of bHLH partners (SmelAN1, SmelJAF13) with MYB counterparts (SmelANT1, SmelAN2 and SmelMYBL1): Yeast Two Hybrid (Y2H) and Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) in A. thaliana mesophylls protoplast. Agro-infiltration experiments highlighted that N. benthamiana leaves transiently expressing SmelANT1 and SmelAN2 showed an anthocyanin-pigmented phenotype, while their co-expression with SmelMYBL1 prevented anthocyanin accumulation. Our results suggest that SmelMYBL1 may inhibits the MBW complex via the competition with MYB activators for bHLH binding site, although this hypothesis requires further elucidation

    A spatially explicit database of wind disturbances in European forests over the period 2000-2018

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    Strong winds may uproot and break trees and represent a major natural disturbance for European forests. Wind disturbances have intensified over the last decades globally and are expected to further rise in view of the effects of climate change. Despite the importance of such natural disturbances, there are currently no spatially explicit databases of wind-related impact at a pan-European scale. Here, we present a new database of wind disturbances in European forests (FORWIND). FORWIND is comprised of more than 80 000 spatially delineated areas in Europe that were disturbed by wind in the period 2000-2018 and describes them in a harmonized and consistent geographical vector format. The database includes all major windstorms that occurred over the observational period (e.g. Gudrun, Kyrill, Klaus, Xynthia and Vaia) and represents approximately 30% of the reported damaging wind events in Europe. Correlation analyses between the areas in FORWIND and land cover changes retrieved from the Landsat-based Global Forest Change dataset and the MODIS Global Disturbance Index corroborate the robustness of FORWIND. Spearman rank coefficients range between 0.27 and 0.48 (p value &lt; 0.05). When recorded forest areas are rescaled based on their damage degree, correlation increases to 0.54. Wind-damaged growing stock volumes reported in national inventories (FORESTORM dataset) are generally higher than analogous metrics provided by FORWIND in combination with satellite-based biomass and country-scale statistics of growing stock volume. The potential of FORWIND is explored for a range of challenging topics and scientific fields, including scaling relations of wind damage, forest vulnerability modelling, remote sensing monitoring of forest disturbance, representation of uprooting and breakage of trees in large-scale land surface models, and hydrogeological risks following wind damage. Overall, FORWIND represents an essential and open-access spatial source that can be used to improve the understanding, detection and prediction of wind disturbances and the consequent impacts on forest ecosystems and the land-atmosphere system. Data sharing is encouraged in order to continuously update and improve FORWIND

    A spatially explicit database of wind disturbances in European forests over the period 2000-2018

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    Strong winds may uproot and break trees and represent a major natural disturbance for European forests. Wind disturbances have ntensified over the last decades globally and are expected to further rise in view of the effects of climate change. Despite the importance of such natural disturbances, there are currently no spatially explicit databases of wind-related impact at a pan-European scale. Here, we present a new database of wind disturbances in European forests (FORWIND). FORWIND is comprised of more than 80 000 spatially delineated areas in Europe that were disturbed by wind in the period 2000–2018 and describes them in a harmonized and consistent geographical vector format. The database includes all major windstorms that occurred over the observational period (e.g. Gudrun, Kyrill, Klaus, Xynthia and Vaia) and represents approximately 30 % of the reported damaging wind events in Europe. Correlation analyses between the areas in FORWIND and land cover changes retrieved from the Landsat-based Global Forest Change dataset and the MODIS Global Disturbance Index corroborate the robustness of FORWIND. Spearman rank coefficients range between 0.27 and 0.48 (p value < 0.05). When recorded forest areas are rescaled based on their damage degree, correlation increases to 0.54. Wind-damaged growing stock volumes reported in national inventories (FORESTORM dataset) are generally higher than analogous metrics provided by FORWIND in combination with satellite-based biomass and country-scale statistics of growing stock volume. The potential of FORWIND is explored for a range of challenging topics and scientific fields, including scaling relations of wind damage, forest vulnerability modelling, remote sensing monitoring of forest disturbance, representation of uprooting and breakage of trees in largescale land surface models, and hydrogeological risks following wind damage. Overall, FORWIND represents an essential and open-access spatial source that can be used to improve the understanding, detection and prediction of wind disturbances and the consequent impacts on forest ecosystems and the land–atmosphere system. Data sharing is encouraged in order to continuously update and improve FORWIND. The dataset is available at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.9555008 (Forzieri et al., 2019)JRC.D.1-Bio-econom
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