1,489 research outputs found

    Effects of the concentration of nutrient solution on lettuce growth in hydroponics-NFT system

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    Foi avaliado o crescimento da alface (Lactuca sativa L.) cv 'Vera' em um sistema hidropônico NFT com diferentes concentrações da solução nutritiva. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação de abril a maio de 2000, na UFRRJ, Seropédica (RJ). Os tratamentos constaram de quatro soluções nutritivas, diferentes quanto à concentração de macronutrientes: 100; 50; 25 e 12,5% da concentração original proposta por Furlani (1997). A produção de massa seca (parte comercial) em solução nutritiva a 50% da concentração original, e condutividade elétrica em torno de 0,98 dS m-1, foi semelhante à solução a 100% da força iônica. As produções obtidas com 100 e 50% da força iônica estiveram dentro da faixa de 90% da produção máxima, calculada em 75±1% da força iônica da solução nutritiva, simulada por equação de regressão. Entretanto, o uso de concentrações menores resultou em redução no crescimento de 50% com a solução a 25% e 80% com a solução a 12,5% da força iônica, nas condições de luz e temperatura em que o experimento foi conduzido. A redução da concentração da solução nutritiva permite uma economia de pelo menos 50% no custo da solução nutritiva básica, reduzindo-se a solução inicial para 1,00 dS m-1, sem comprometer a produtividade.The growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv 'Vera' was evaluated in a NFT hydroponic system with different nutrient solution concentrations. An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse from April to May, 2000 in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Four treatments were used differing in macro nutrient concentration: 100; 50; 25 and 12.5% of the original concentration of the solution proposed by Furlani (1997). Using 50% of the original concentration with electric conductivity around 0,98 dS m-1, plants produced the same shoot dry mass as using 100% of the ionic strength. In this trial, the phytomass yield using 100 and 50% of the ionic strength was within the range of 90% of the maximum production, calculated at 75±1% of the ionic strength to the nutrient solution, simulated by a regression equation. However, the use of smaller concentrations resulted in reduction of the growth of 50% with the solution at 25% and 80% with the solution at 12.5% of the ionic strength, under the light and temperature conditions which the experiment was carried out. Decreasing the nutrient solution concentration one can reduce up to 50% of the basic nutrient solution costs, if nutrient solution concentration is reduced and electric conductivity kept close to 1.00 dS m-1

    The upgraded front-end electronics of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter for the HL-LHC

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    The Compact Muon Solenoid detector was originally designed to operate for about ten years, for LHC instantaneous luminosity up to 1·1034 cm−2 s−1 and integrated luminosity of 500 fb−1. The High Luminosity LHC will increase the instantaneous luminosity by about a factor of 5 from current levels and CMS will accumulate an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb−1 by about 2035. With such high luminosity the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS will have to cope with a challenging increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing and in radiation levels. The front-end readout electronics will be completely redesigned, with the goals of providing precision timing, low noise, sampling rate 4 times higher than the current one and added flexibility in the trigger system

    Modulation of Cyclic AMP Levels in Fallopian Tube Cells by Natural and Environmental Estrogens

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    Autocrine/paracrine factors generated in response to 17β-estradiol (E2) within the fallopian tube (FT) facilitate fertilization and early embryo development for implantation. Since cyclic AMP (cAMP) plays a key role in reproduction, regulation of its synthesis by E2 may be of biological/pathophysiological relevance. Herein, we investigated whether cAMP production in FT cells (FTCs) is regulated by E2 and environmental estrogens (EE’s; xenoestrogens and phytoestrogens). Under basal conditions, low levels of extracellular cAMP were detectable in bovine FTCs (epithelial cells and fibroblasts; 1:1 ratio). Treatment of FTCs with forskolin (AC; adenylyl cyclase activator), isoproterenol (β-adrenoceptor agonist) and IBMX (phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor) dramatically (>10 fold) increased cAMP; whereas LRE1 (sAC; soluble AC inhibitor) and 2’,5’-dideoxyadenosine (DDA; transmembrane AC (tmAC)) inhibitor decreased cAMP. Comparable changes in basal and stimulated intracellular cAMP were also observed. Ro-20-1724 (PDE-IV inhibitor), but not milrinone (PDE-III inhibitor) nor mmIBMX (PDE-I inhibitor), augmented forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels, suggesting that PDE-IV dominates in FTCs. E2 increased cAMP levels and CREB phosphorylation in FTCs, and these effects were mimicked by EE’s (genistein, 4-hydroxy-2’,4’,6’-trichlorobiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-2’,4’,6’-dichlorobiphenyl). Moreover, the effects of E2 and EE were blocked by the tmAC inhibitor DDA, but not by the ERα/β antagonist ICI182780. Moreover, BAPTA-AM (intracellular-Ca2+ chelator) abrogated the effects of E2, but not genistein, on cAMP suggesting differential involvement of Ca2+. Treatment with non-permeable E2-BSA induced cAMP levels and CREB-phosphorylation; moreover, the stimulatory effects of E2 and EEs on cAMP were blocked by G15, a G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) antagonist. E2 and IBMX induced cAMP formation was inhibited by LRE1 and DDA suggesting involvement of both tmAC and sAC. Our results provide the first evidence that in FTCs, E2 and EE’s stimulate cAMP synthesis via GPER. Exposure of the FT to EE’s and PDE inhibitors may result in abnormal non-cyclic induction of cAMP levels which may induce deleterious effects on reproduction

    ℓ-space spectroscopy of the Cosmic Microwave Background with the BOOMERanG experiment

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    The BOOMERanG experiment has recently produced detailed maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background, where sub-horizon structures are resolved with good signal to noise ratio. A power spectrum (spherical harmonics) analysis of the maps detects three peaks, at multipoles ℓ = (213_(-13)^(+10)),(541_(-32)^(+20))(845_(-25)^(+12)). In this paper we discuss the data analysis and the implications of these results for cosmology

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum