72 research outputs found

    Correction: Emotional impact of screening: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>There is a widely held expectation that screening for disease has adverse emotional impacts. The aim of the current review is to estimate the short (< 4 weeks) and longer term (> 4 weeks) emotional impact of such screening.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Studies selected for inclusion were (a) randomised controlled trials in which (b) participants in one arm underwent screening and received test results, and those in a control arm did not, and (c) emotional outcomes were assessed in both arms. MEDLINE via PubMed (1950 to present), EMBASE (1980 to present), PsycINFO (1985 to present) using OVID SP, and CINAHL (1982 to present) via EBSCO were searched, using strategies developed with keywords and medical subject headings. Data were extracted on emotional outcomes, type of screening test and test results.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Of the 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria, six involved screening for cancer, two for diabetes, and one each for abdominal aortic aneurysms, peptic ulcer, coronary heart disease and osteoporosis. Five studies reported data on anxiety, four on depression, two on general distress and eight on quality of life assessed between one week and 13 years after screening (median = 1.3 years).</p> <p>Meta-analyses revealed no significant impact of screening on longer term anxiety (pooled SMD 0.01, 95% CI -0.10, 0.11), depression (pooled SMD -0.04, 95% CI -.12, 0.20), or quality of life subscales (mental and self-assessed health pooled SMDs, respectively: 0.03; -0.01, (95% CI -.02, 0.04; 0.00, 95% CI -.04, 0.03).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Screening does not appear to have adverse emotional impacts in the longer term (> 4 weeks). Too few studies assessed outcomes before four weeks to comment on the shorter term emotional impact of screening.</p

    Global Health: A Successful Context for Precollege Training and Advocacy

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    Despite a flourishing biomedical and global health industry [1] too few of Washington state's precollege students are aware of this growing sector and emerging ideas on bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. Against the backdrop of numerous reports regarding declining precollege student interest in science [2], a precollege program was envisioned at Seattle Biomedical Research Institute (as of 2010, Seattle BioMed) to increase youth engagement in biomedical research and global health, increase community interest in infectious diseases and mobilize a future biomedical workforce. Since 2005, 169 rising high school juniors have participated in the BioQuest Academy precollege immersion program at Seattle BioMed. Assembling in groups of 12, students conduct laboratory experiments (e.g., anopheline mosquito dissection, gene expression informed tuberculosis drug design and optimizing HIV immunization strategies) related to global health alongside practicing scientific mentors, all within the footprint the institute. Laudable short-term impacts of the program include positive influences on student interest in global health (as seen in the students' subsequent school projects and their participation in Seattle BioMed community events), biomedical careers and graduate school (e.g., 16.9% of teens departing 2008–2009 Academy report revised goals of attaining a doctorate rather than a baccalaureate diploma). Long-term, 97% of alumni (2005–2008) are attending postsecondary schools throughout North America; eight graduates have already published scientific articles in peer-reviewed journals and/or presented their scientific data at national and international meetings, and 26 have been retained by Seattle BioMed researchers as compensated technicians and interns. Providing precollege students with structured access to practicing scientists and authentic research environments within the context of advancing global health has been a robust means of both building a future pool of talented leaders and engaged citizenry and increasing the visibility of health disparities within the community

    Cartilage-specific <i>Sirt6</i> deficiency represses IGF-1 and enhances osteoarthritis severity in mice.

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    ObjectivesPrior studies noted that chondrocyte SIRT6 activity is repressed in older chondrocytes rendering cells susceptible to catabolic signalling events implicated in osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed to define the effect of Sirt6 deficiency on the development of post-traumatic and age-associated OA in mice.MethodsMale cartilage-specific Sirt6-deficient mice and Sirt6 intact controls underwent destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM) or sham surgery at 16 weeks of age and OA severity was analysed at 6 and 10 weeks postsurgery. Age-associated OA was assessed in mice aged 12 and 18 months of age. OA severity was analysed by micro-CT, histomorphometry and scoring of articular cartilage structure, toluidine blue staining and osteophyte formation. SIRT6-regulated pathways were analysed in human chondrocytes by RNA-sequencing, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting.ResultsSirt6-deficient mice displayed enhanced DMM-induced OA severity and accelerated age-associated OA when compared with controls, characterised by increased cartilage damage, osteophyte formation and subchondral bone sclerosis. In chondrocytes, RNA-sequencing revealed that SIRT6 depletion significantly repressed cartilage extracellular matrix (eg, COL2A1) and anabolic growth factor (eg, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) gene expression. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in chondrocytes demonstrated that SIRT6 depletion attenuated, whereas adenoviral overexpression or MDL-800-induced SIRT6 activation promoted IGF-1 signalling by increasing Aktser473 phosphorylation.ConclusionsSIRT6 deficiency increases post-traumatic and age-associated OA severity in vivo. SIRT6 profoundly regulated the pro-anabolic and pro-survival IGF-1/Akt signalling pathway and suggests that preserving the SIRT6/IGF-1/Akt axis may be necessary to protect cartilage from injury-associated or age-associated OA. Targeted therapies aimed at increasing SIRT6 function could represent a novel strategy to slow or stop OA

    Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Data Sets: Description, Management, and Delivery

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    Abstract The ACT‐America project is a NASA Earth Venture Suborbital‐2 mission designed to study the transport and fluxes of greenhouse gases. The open and freely available ACT‐America data sets provide airborne in situ measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide, methane, trace gases, aerosols, clouds, and meteorological properties, airborne remote sensing measurements of aerosol backscatter, atmospheric boundary layer height and columnar content of atmospheric carbon dioxide, tower‐based measurements, and modeled atmospheric mole fractions and regional carbon fluxes of greenhouse gases over the Central and Eastern United States. We conducted 121 research flights during five campaigns in four seasons during 2016–2019 over three regions of the US (Mid‐Atlantic, Midwest and South) using two NASA research aircraft (B‐200 and C‐130). We performed three flight patterns (fair weather, frontal crossings, and OCO‐2 underflights) and collected more than 1,140 h of airborne measurements via level‐leg flights in the atmospheric boundary layer, lower, and upper free troposphere and vertical profiles spanning these altitudes. We also merged various airborne in situ measurements onto a common standard sampling interval, which brings coherence to the data, creates geolocated data products, and makes it much easier for the users to perform holistic analysis of the ACT‐America data products. Here, we report on detailed information of data sets collected, the workflow for data sets including storage and processing of the quality controlled and quality assured harmonized observations, and their archival and formatting for users. Finally, we provide some important information on the dissemination of data products including metadata and highlights of applications of ACT‐America data sets

    Hyperoxemia and excess oxygen use in early acute respiratory distress syndrome : Insights from the LUNG SAFE study

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    Publisher Copyright: © 2020 The Author(s). Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.Background: Concerns exist regarding the prevalence and impact of unnecessary oxygen use in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We examined this issue in patients with ARDS enrolled in the Large observational study to UNderstand the Global impact of Severe Acute respiratory FailurE (LUNG SAFE) study. Methods: In this secondary analysis of the LUNG SAFE study, we wished to determine the prevalence and the outcomes associated with hyperoxemia on day 1, sustained hyperoxemia, and excessive oxygen use in patients with early ARDS. Patients who fulfilled criteria of ARDS on day 1 and day 2 of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure were categorized based on the presence of hyperoxemia (PaO2 > 100 mmHg) on day 1, sustained (i.e., present on day 1 and day 2) hyperoxemia, or excessive oxygen use (FIO2 ≥ 0.60 during hyperoxemia). Results: Of 2005 patients that met the inclusion criteria, 131 (6.5%) were hypoxemic (PaO2 < 55 mmHg), 607 (30%) had hyperoxemia on day 1, and 250 (12%) had sustained hyperoxemia. Excess FIO2 use occurred in 400 (66%) out of 607 patients with hyperoxemia. Excess FIO2 use decreased from day 1 to day 2 of ARDS, with most hyperoxemic patients on day 2 receiving relatively low FIO2. Multivariate analyses found no independent relationship between day 1 hyperoxemia, sustained hyperoxemia, or excess FIO2 use and adverse clinical outcomes. Mortality was 42% in patients with excess FIO2 use, compared to 39% in a propensity-matched sample of normoxemic (PaO2 55-100 mmHg) patients (P = 0.47). Conclusions: Hyperoxemia and excess oxygen use are both prevalent in early ARDS but are most often non-sustained. No relationship was found between hyperoxemia or excessive oxygen use and patient outcome in this cohort. Trial registration: LUNG-SAFE is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02010073publishersversionPeer reviewe

    Evaluating the Effects of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Mutation D614G on Transmissibility and Pathogenicity.

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    Global dispersal and increasing frequency of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein variant D614G are suggestive of a selective advantage but may also be due to a random founder effect. We investigate the hypothesis for positive selection of spike D614G in the United Kingdom using more than 25,000 whole genome SARS-CoV-2 sequences. Despite the availability of a large dataset, well represented by both spike 614 variants, not all approaches showed a conclusive signal of positive selection. Population genetic analysis indicates that 614G increases in frequency relative to 614D in a manner consistent with a selective advantage. We do not find any indication that patients infected with the spike 614G variant have higher COVID-19 mortality or clinical severity, but 614G is associated with higher viral load and younger age of patients. Significant differences in growth and size of 614G phylogenetic clusters indicate a need for continued study of this variant