366 research outputs found

    On the optimisation of a texture analyser in squeeze flow geometry

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    The original contribution is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263224106000327International audienceThis paper describes how the range of application of a texture analyser, used for mechanical tests of solids and liquids in the food and cosmetics industry, can be extended to reproduce squeeze flow geometry. It describes the necessary optimisation of the device to ensure parallelism and thermal regulation of the plates during tests. The error on the load cell and the instrument compliance are evaluated. The influence of these artefact measurements is investigated in terms of interpretation of rheological properties of materials

    Mineral types and tree species determine the functional and taxonomic structures of forest soil bacterial communities

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    Although minerals represent important soil constituents, their impact on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities remains poorly documented. In this study, pure mineral particles with various chemistries (i.e., obsidian, apatite, and calcite) were considered. Each mineral type was conditioned in mesh bags and incubated in soil below different tree stands ( beech, coppice with standards, and Corsican pine) for 2.5 years to determine the relative impacts of mineralogy and mineral weatherability on the taxonomic and functional diversities of mineral-associated bacterial communities. After this incubation period, the minerals and the surrounding bulk soil were collected to determine mass loss and to perform soil analyses, enzymatic assays, and cultivation-dependent and -independent analyses. Notably, our 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analyses revealed that after the 2.5-year incubation period, the mineral-associated bacterial communities strongly differed from those of the surrounding bulk soil for all tree stands considered. When focusing only on minerals, our analyses showed that the bacterial communities associated with calcite, the less recalcitrant mineral type, significantly differed from those that colonized obsidian and apatite minerals. The cultivation-dependent analysis revealed significantly higher abundances of effective mineral-weathering bacteria on the most recalcitrant minerals (i.e., apatite and obsidian). Together, our data showed an enrichment of Betaproteobacteria and effective mineral-weathering bacteria related to the Burkholderia and Collimonas genera on the minerals, suggesting a key role for these taxa in mineral weathering and nutrient cycling in nutrient-poor forest ecosystems.IMPORTANCE Forests are usually developed on nutrient-poor and rocky soils, while nutrient-rich soils have been dedicated to agriculture. In this context, nutrient recycling and nutrient access are key processes in such environments. Deciphering how soil mineralogy influences the diversity, structure, and function of soil bacterial communities in relation to the soil conditions is crucial to better understanding the relative role of the soil bacterial communities in nutrient cycling and plant nutrition in nutrient-poor environments. The present study determined in detail the diversity and structure of bacterial communities associated with different mineral types incubated for 2.5 years in the soil under different tree species using cultivation-dependent and - independent analyses. Our data showed an enrichment of specific bacterial taxa on the minerals, specifically on the most weathered minerals, suggesting that they play key roles in mineral weathering and nutrient cycling in nutrient-poor forest ecosystems

    Mechanical characterization of aortic valve tissues using an inverse analysis approach

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    International audienceThe use of numerical simulation to investigate heart and valvular mechanics is becoming increasingly popular. In particular, finite element analysis is often used to support the operation planning procedure as well as the design of new prostheses with mechanical properties as close as possible to those of natural tissues and an even better biocompatibility. With one of the highest prevalence of cardiovascular degenerative diseases [1], aortic valves (AV) have been widely studied during the last decades.The elastic [2] and time-dependent [3] behaviors of the AV leaflets under physiological biaxial loading states have been previously investigated in the literature over a wide range of loading conditions.. As most soft tissues, AV has an oriented network of collagen fibers embedded in an elastin matrix, which is responsible for their hyperelastic and anisotropic behaviors. Accordingly, non-linear transverse isotropic constitutive equations are often used assuming a macroscopically-identifiable preferred fiber direction.In this study a new method is proposed in order to estimate relevant material and structural properties of AV while reducing at the same time the number of complex and time-consuming experiments. An inverse analysis procedure based on the finite element computation of planar biaxial tensile tests was used to set-up a reduced protocol. This protocol was then experimentally reproduced to identify real material parameters. The obtained material parameters will be later used to model heart valve tissues

    Shaping the BRCAness mutational landscape by alternative double-strand break repair, replication stress and mitotic aberrancies

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    Tumours with mutations in the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes have impaired double-stranded DNA break repair, compromised replication fork protection and increased sensitivity to replication blocking agents, a phenotype collectively known as 'BRCAness'. Tumours with a BRCAness phenotype become dependent on alternative repair pathways that are error-prone and introduce specific patterns of somatic mutations across the genome. The increasing availability of next-generation sequencing data of tumour samples has enabled identification of distinct mutational signatures associated with BRCAness. These signatures reveal that alternative repair pathways, including Polymerase Ξ-mediated alternative end-joining and RAD52-mediated single strand annealing are active in BRCA1/2-deficient tumours, pointing towards potential therapeutic targets in these tumours. Additionally, insight into the mutations and consequences of unrepaired DNA lesions may also aid in the identification of BRCA-like tumours lacking BRCA1/BRCA2 gene inactivation. This is clinically relevant, as these tumours respond favourably to treatment with DNA-damaging agents, including PARP inhibitors or cisplatin, which have been successfully used to treat patients with BRCA1/2-defective tumours. In this review, we aim to provide insight in the origins of the mutational landscape associated with BRCAness by exploring the molecular biology of alternative DNA repair pathways, which may represent actionable therapeutic targets in in these cells

    Ivy : un bus logiciel au service du développement de prototypes de systÚmes interactifs

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    Ce document présente l'expérience acquise au cours du développement et de l'utilisation du bus logiciel Ivy, dans un cadre de prototypage de systÚmes interactifs pour le contrÎle du trafic aérien. AprÚs une description du principe de fonctionnement de ce systÚme, nous verrons comment cet outil a pu influer sur notre approche de problématiques IHM spécifiques comme la multimodalité, l'interaction répartie ou la mobilité. L'accent est porté sur les services rendus par ce bus pour le développement rapide de systÚmes interactifs " légers ", facilement intégrables dans un banc de démonstration et basés sur la logique des langages de script. En présentant cet outil que nous utilisons depuis maintenant cinq ans, nous espérons partager ici une expérience utile pour la conception de futures architectures de systÚmes interactifs à des fins de recherche prospective

    Bidimensional lamellar assembly by coordination of peptidic homopolymers to platinum nanoparticles

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    A key challenge for designing hybrid materials is the development of chemical tools to control the organization of inorganic nanoobjects at low scales, from mesoscopic (~”m) to nanometric (~nm). So far, the most efficient strategy to align assemblies of nanoparticles consists in a bottom-up approach by decorating block copolymer lamellae with nanoobjects. This well accomplished procedure is nonetheless limited by the thermodynamic constraints that govern copolymer assembly, the entropy of mixing as described by the Flory–Huggins solution theory supplemented by the critical influence of the volume fraction of the block components. Here we show that a completely different approach can lead to tunable 2D lamellar organization of nanoparticles with homopolymers only, on condition that few elementary rules are respected: 1) the polymer spontaneously allows a structural preorganization, 2) the polymer owns functional groups that interact with the nanoparticle surface, 3) the nanoparticles show a surface accessible for coordination

    ASPM-associated stem cell proliferation is involved in malignant progression of gliomas and constitutes an attractive therapeutic target

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>ASPM (<it>Abnormal Spindle-like Microcephaly associated</it>) over-expression was recently implicated in the development of malignant gliomas.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>To better characterize the involvement of ASPM in gliomas, we investigated the mRNA expression in 175 samples, including 8 WHO Grade II, 75 WHO Grade III and 92 WHO Grade IV tumors. <it>Aspm </it>expression was strongly correlated with tumor grade and increased at recurrence when compared to the initial lesion, whatever the initial grade of the primary tumor. ASPM expression also increased over serial passages in gliomaspheres <it>in vitro </it>and in mouse xenografts <it>in vivo</it>. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA silencing of ASPM resulted in dramatic proliferation arrest and cell death in two different gliomasphere models.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>These data suggest that ASPM is involved in the malignant progression of gliomas, possibly through expansion of a cancer stem cell compartment, and is an attractive therapeutic target in glioblastoma multiforme.</p

    Endogenous Morphine Levels Are Increased in Sepsis: A Partial Implication of Neutrophils

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    BACKGROUND: Mammalian cells synthesize morphine and the respective biosynthetic pathway has been elucidated. Human neutrophils release this alkaloid into the media after exposure to morphine precursors. However, the exact role of endogenous morphine in inflammatory processes remains unclear. We postulate that morphine is released during infection and can be determined in the serum of patients with severe infection such as sepsis. METHODOLOGY: The presence and subcellular immunolocalization of endogenous morphine was investigated by ELISA, mass spectrometry analysis and laser confocal microscopy. Neutrophils were activated with Interleukin-8 (IL-8) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Morphine secretion was determined by a morphine-specific ELISA. mu opioid receptor expression was assessed with flow cytometry. Serum morphine concentrations of septic patients were determined with a morphine-specific ELISA and morphine identity was confirmed in human neutrophils and serum of septic patients by mass spectrometry analysis. The effects of the concentration of morphine found in serum of septic patients on LPS-induced release of IL-8 by human neutrophils were tested. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We confirmed the presence of morphine in human neutrophil extracts and showed its colocalisation with lactoferrin within the secondary granules of neutrophils. Morphine secretion was quantified in the supernatant of activated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the presence and absence of Ca(2+). LPS and IL-8 were able to induce a significant release of morphine only in presence of Ca(2+). LPS treatment increased mu opioid receptor expression on neutrophils. Low concentration of morphine (8 nM) significantly inhibited the release of IL-8 from neutrophils when coincubated with LPS. This effect was reversed by naloxone. Patients with sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock had significant higher circulating morphine levels compared to patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and healthy controls. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that endogenous morphine from serum of patient with sepsis was identical to poppy-derived morphine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that morphine concentrations are increased significantly in the serum of patients with systemic infection and that morphine is, at least in part, secreted from neutrophils during sepsis. Morphine concentrations equivalent to those found in the serum of septic patients significantly inhibited LPS-induced IL-8 secretion in neutrophils

    A multispeaker dataset of raw and reconstructed speech production real-time MRI video and 3D volumetric images

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    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) of human speech production is enabling significant advances in speech science, linguistics, bio-inspired speech technology development, and clinical applications. Easy access to RT-MRI is however limited, and comprehensive datasets with broad access are needed to catalyze research across numerous domains. The imaging of the rapidly moving articulators and dynamic airway shaping during speech demands high spatio-temporal resolution and robust reconstruction methods. Further, while reconstructed images have been published, to-date there is no open dataset providing raw multi-coil RT-MRI data from an optimized speech production experimental setup. Such datasets could enable new and improved methods for dynamic image reconstruction, artifact correction, feature extraction, and direct extraction of linguistically-relevant biomarkers. The present dataset offers a unique corpus of 2D sagittal-view RT-MRI videos along with synchronized audio for 75 subjects performing linguistically motivated speech tasks, alongside the corresponding first-ever public domain raw RT-MRI data. The dataset also includes 3D volumetric vocal tract MRI during sustained speech sounds and high-resolution static anatomical T2-weighted upper airway MRI for each subject.Comment: 27 pages, 6 figures, 5 tables, submitted to Nature Scientific Dat

    The H3.3K27M oncohistone affects replication stress outcome and provokes genomic instability in pediatric glioma

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    While comprehensive molecular profiling of histone H3.3 mutant pediatric high-grade glioma has revealed extensive dysregulation of the chromatin landscape, the exact mechanisms driving tumor formation remain poorly understood. Since H3.3 mutant gliomas also exhibit high levels of copy number alterations, we set out to address if the H3.3K27M oncohistone leads to destabilization of the genome. Hereto, we established a cell culture model allowing inducible H3.3K27M expression and observed an increase in mitotic abnormalities. We also found enhanced interaction of DNA replication factors with H3.3K27M during mitosis, indicating replication defects. Further functional analyses revealed increased genomic instability upon replication stress, as represented by mitotic bulky and ultrafine DNA bridges. This co-occurred with suboptimal 53BP1 nuclear body formation after mitosis in vitro, and in human glioma. Finally, we observed a decrease in ultrafine DNA bridges following deletion of the K27M mutant H3F3A allele in primary high-grade glioma cells. Together, our data uncover a role for H3.3 in DNA replication under stress conditions that is altered by the K27M mutation, promoting genomic instability and potentially glioma development