44 research outputs found

    Classification of Coastal Communities Reporting Commercial Fish Landings in the U.S. Northeast Region: Developing and Testing a Methodology

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    The National Marine Fisheries Service is required by law to conduct social impact assessments of communities impacted by fishery management plans. To facilitate this process, we developed a technique for grouping communities based on common sociocultural attributes. Multivariate data reduction techniques (e.g. principal component analyses, cluster analyses) were used to classify Northeast U.S. fishing communities based on census and fisheries data. The comparisons indicate that the clusters represent real groupings that can be verified with the profiles. We then selected communities representative of different values on these multivariate dimensions for in-depth analysis. The derived clusters are then compared based on more detailed data from fishing community profiles. Ground-truthing (e.g. visiting the communities and collecting primary information) a sample of communities from three clusters (two overlapping geographically) indicates that the more remote techniques are sufficient for typing the communities for further in-depth analyses. The in-depth analyses provide additional important information which we contend is representative of all communities within the cluster

    Social Bonds and Recovery: An Analysis of Hurricane Sandy in the First Year after Landfall

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    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most devastating hurricanes to hit US shores. The brunt of the impact was felt in New York and New Jersey, especially among coastal towns such as fishing communities. A survey of these two states assessed social and economic impacts to 958 commercial and recreational fishermen and fishing-related business owners 12 months post-storm. Many businesses and communities were still struggling, due to heavy infrastructure damages and revenue losses with low insurance coverage, but also to disrupted fishing patterns for some species. Social bonds were credited by many as a key aid to recovery. Social bonds (sometimes called bonding social capital) have been shown to be critical for evacuation and recovery in other disasters. However, few studies examine social bonds and disasters within the context of fisheries. This paper expands upon that topic

    Perceived Adaptive Capacity and Natural Disasters: A Fisheries Case Study

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    Fishermen may be increasingly impacted by natural disasters, given sea level rise and the likely increased frequency and severity of storms associated with climate change. Planning for resiliency in the face of these disasters requires understanding the factors that influence fishermen’s capacity to adapt. The paper examines perceptions of adaptive capacity of New York and New Jersey commercial and for-hire fishermen one year after Hurricane Sandy. Subjective adaptive capacity to changes in the fishery in general and those caused by natural disasters was assessed. A comparison between commercial and for-hire fishermen revealed important differences and similarities with regard to attributes influencing their perceived adaptive capacity. While both groups show high levels of coping capacity in general, for-hire fishermen presented more confidence in their ability to obtain work and income outside the fishery while commercial fishermen were more confident in their ability to remain in fishing. For both groups, those that suffered more intense impacts from the storm had more negative levels of perceived adaptive capacity. Understanding the perceived adaptive capacity of commercial and for-hire fishermen can help researchers and policy makers better understand and address each sector’s response to impacts of future natural disasters and human driven changes

    Monitoring of Tumor Promotion and Progression in a Mouse Model of Inflammation-Induced Colon Cancer with Magnetic Resonance Colonography

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    AbstractEarly detection of precancerous tissue has significantly improved survival of most cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Animal models designed to study the early stages of cancer are valuable for identifying molecular events and response indicators that correlate with the onset of disease. The goal of this work was to investigate magnetic resonance (MR) colonography in a mouse model of CRC on a clinical MR imager. Mice treated with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium were imaged by serial MR colonography (MRC) from initiation to euthanasia. Magnetic resonance colonography was obtained with both T1- and T2-weighted images after administration of a Fluorinert enema to remove residual luminal signal and intravenous contrast to enhance the colon wall. Individual tumor volumes were calculated and validated ex vivo. The Fluorinert enema provided a clear differentiation of the lumen of the colon from the mucosal lining. Inflammation was detected 3 days after dextran sulfate sodium exposure and subsided during the next week. Tumors as small as 1.2 mm3 were detected and as early as 29 days after initiation. Individual tumor growths were followed over time, and tumor volumes were measured by MR imaging correlated with volumes measured ex vivo. The use of a Fluorinert enema during MRC in mice is critical for differentiating mural processes from intraluminal debris. Magnetic resonance colonography with Fluorinert enema and intravenous contrast enhancement will be useful in the study of the initial stages of colon cancer and will reduce the number of animals needed for preclinical trials of prevention or intervention

    Implementing Ecosystem Approaches to Fishery Management: Risk Assessment in the US Mid-Atlantic

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    Fishery managers worldwide are evaluating methods for incorporating climate, habitat, ecological, social, and economic factors into current operations in order to implement Ecosystem Approaches to Fishery Management (EAFM). While this can seem overwhelming, it is possible to take practical steps toward EAFM implementation that make use of existing information and provide managers with valuable strategic advice. Here, we describe the process used by the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) to develop an ecosystem-level risk assessment, the initial step proposed in their recently adopted EAFM guidance document. The Council first defined five types of Risk Elements (ecological, economic, social, food production, management) and identified which management objectives aligned with each element. Based on an existing ecosystem status report for the region and other existing sources (including expert opinion), potential ecological, social, economic, and management indicators were identified for each risk element. Finally, low, low-moderate, moderate-high, and high risk criteria were defined for each indicator, and the indicator data were used to score each risk element using the criteria. The ultimate outcome is a ranked risk assessment in order to focus on the highest risk issues for further evaluation and mitigation. The risk assessment highlights certain species and certain management issues as posing higher cumulative risks to meeting Council management objectives when considering a broad range of ecological, social, and economic factors. Tabular color coded summaries of risk assessment results will be used by the Council to prioritize further EAFM analyses as well as research plans over the coming 5 years. As ecosystem reporting and operational EAFM continue to evolve in future years, the Council foresees integrating these efforts so that ecosystem indicators are refined to meet the needs of fishery managers in identifying and managing risks to achieving ecological, social, and economic fishery objectives. Overall, ecosystem indicator-based risk assessment is a method that can be adapted to a wide range of resource management systems and available information, and therefore represents a promising way forward in the implementation of EAFM

    Visual Acuity Measures Do Not Reliably Detect Childhood Refractive Error - an Epidemiological Study

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    PURPOSE: To investigate the utility of uncorrected visual acuity measures in screening for refractive error in white school children aged 6-7-years and 12-13-years. METHODS: The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER) study used a stratified random cluster design to recruit children from schools in Northern Ireland. Detailed eye examinations included assessment of logMAR visual acuity and cycloplegic autorefraction. Spherical equivalent refractive data from the right eye were used to classify significant refractive error as myopia of at least 1DS, hyperopia as greater than +3.50DS and astigmatism as greater than 1.50DC, whether it occurred in isolation or in association with myopia or hyperopia. RESULTS: Results are presented from 661 white 12-13-year-old and 392 white 6-7-year-old school-children. Using a cut-off of uncorrected visual acuity poorer than 0.20 logMAR to detect significant refractive error gave a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 92% in 6-7-year-olds and 73% and 93% respectively in 12-13-year-olds. In 12-13-year-old children a cut-off of poorer than 0.20 logMAR had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 91% in detecting myopia and a sensitivity of 41% and a specificity of 84% in detecting hyperopia. CONCLUSIONS: Vision screening using logMAR acuity can reliably detect myopia, but not hyperopia or astigmatism in school-age children. Providers of vision screening programs should be cognisant that where detection of uncorrected hyperopic and/or astigmatic refractive error is an aspiration, current UK protocols will not effectively deliver

    Pion-kaon femtoscopy and the lifetime of the hadronic phase in Pb-Pb collisions at root(S)(NN)=2.76 TeV

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    In this paper, the first femtoscopic analysis of pion-kaon correlations at the LHC is reported. The analysis was performed on the Pb-Pb collision data at root(S)(NN) = 2.76 TeV recorded with the ALICE detector. The non-identical particle correlations probe the spatio-temporal separation between sources of different particle species as well as the average source size of the emitting system. The sizes of the pion and kaon sources increase with centrality, and pions are emitted closer to the centre of the system and/or later than kaons. This is naturally expected in a system with strong radial flow and is qualitatively reproduced by hydrodynamic models. ALICE data on pion-kaon emission asymmetry are consistent with (3+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics coupled to a statistical hadronisation model, resonance propagation, and decay code THERMINATOR 2 calculation, with an additional time delay between 1 and 2 fm/c for kaons. The delay can be interpreted as evidence for a significant hadronic rescattering phase in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. (C) 2020 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.Peer reviewe

    Centrality dependence of J/psi and psi(2S) production and nuclear modification in p-Pb collisions at <mml:msqrt>sNN</mml:msqrt>=8.16 TeV

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    The inclusive production of the J/ and psi (2S) charmonium states is studied as a function of centrality in p-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair sNN = 8.16 TeV at the LHC. The measurement is performed in the dimuon decay channel with the ALICE apparatus in the centre-of-mass rapidity intervals -4.46 and pT2 values. The nuclear effects affecting the production of both charmonium states are studied using the nuclear modification factor. In the p-going direction, a suppression of the production of both charmonium states is observed, which seems to increase from peripheral to central collisions. In the Pb-going direction, however, the centrality dependence is different for the two states: the nuclear modification factor of the J/psi increases from below unity in peripheral collisions to above unity in central collisions, while for the psi (2S) it stays below or consistent with unity for all centralities with no significant centrality dependence. The results are compared with measurements in p-Pb collisions at sNN = 5.02 TeV and no significant dependence on the energy of the collision is observed. Finally, the results are compared with theoretical models implementing various nuclear matter effects.Peer reviewe
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