812 research outputs found

    Dark Matter in Modern Cosmology

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    The presence of Dark Matter (DM) is required in the universe regulated by the standard general relativistic theory of gravitation. The nature of DM is however still elusive to any experimental search. We discuss here the process of accumulation of evidence for the presence of DM in the universe, the astrophysical probes for the leading DM scenarios that can be obtained through a multi-frequency analysis of cosmic structures on large scales, and the strategies related to the multi-messenger and multi-experiment astrophysical search for the nature of the DM.Comment: 25 pages, 9 figures. Updated version of the review included in ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY AFTER GAMOW: Proceedings of the 4th Gamow International Conference on Astrophysics and Cosmology After Gamow and the 9th Gamow Summer School "Astronomy and Beyond: Astrophysics, Cosmology, Radio Astronomy, High Energy Physics and Astrobiology". AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 1206, p.

    On the ability of spectroscopic SZ effect measurements to determine the temperature structure of galaxy clusters

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    (abridged) We explore in this paper the ability of spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements of the SZ effect (SZE) to determine the temperature profile of galaxy clusters. We derive a general formalism for the thermal SZE in galaxy clusters with a non-uniform temperature profile that can be applied to both cool-core clusters and non-cool core cluster with an isothermal or non-isothermal temperature structure. We derive an inversion technique through which the electron distribution function can be extracted from spectroscopic SZE observations over a wide frequency range. We study the fitting procedure to extract the cluster temperature from a set of simulated spatially resolved spectroscopic SZE observations in different bands of the spectrum, from 100 to 450 GHz. The results of our analysis for three different cluster prototypes (A2199 with a low-temperature cool core, Perseus with a relatively high-temperature cool core, Ophiuchus with an isothermal temperature distribution) provide both the required precision of the SZE observations and the optimal frequency bands for a determination of the cluster temperature similar or better than that obtainable from X-ray observations. The precision of SZE-derived temperature is also discussed for the outer regions of clusters. We also study the possibility to extract, from our method, the parameters characterizing the non-thermal SZE spectrum of the relativistic plasma contained in the lobes of radio galaxies as well as the spectrum of relativistic electrons co-spatially distributed with the thermal plasma in clusters with non-thermal phenomena. We find that the next generation SZE experiments with spectroscopic capabilities can provide precise temperature distribution measurements (...)Comment: Submitted to Astronomy & Astrophysic

    Evidence for a Significant Blazar Contamination in CMB Anisotropy Maps

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    The analysis of the recent WMAP source catalog shows that the vast majority of bright foreground extragalactic sources detected in CMB maps are Blazars. In this paper we calculate the contamination of CMB anisotropy maps by this type of flat-spectrum, strongly variable and polarized extragalactic radio sources using up-to-date results from recent deep multi-frequency surveys. We found that more than 50 known Blazars (or Blazar candidates) are included in the 90/150 GHz BOOMERANG anisotropy maps, a factor > 15 larger than previously reported. Using a recent derivation of the Blazar radio LogN-LogS we calculate that these sources induce an average sky brightness of 0.2 Jy/deg^2, corresponding to an average temperature of ~3-5 muK. Moreover, we find that the associated level of fluctuations is of the order of C_{l, Blazar}= 1.3 10^{-2} mu K^2 sr at 41 GHz. Taking into account both Blazar variability and the many steep-spectrum radio sources that flatten at high frequencies, as well as the contribution of radio-galaxies, we find that the level of residual fluctuation due to discrete extragalactic foreground sources could be factor of ~2 - 3 higher than the above estimate. We show that the Blazar induced fluctuations contaminate the CMB spectrum at the level of ~ 20-50 % at l = 500 and 50-100 % at l = 800. Careful cleaning for Blazar contamination of high sensitivity/high resolution CMB maps is therefore necessary before firm conclusions about weak features, like secondary high-l peaks of the CMB power spectrum or very weak signals like CMB polarization measurements, can be achieved.Comment: 10 pages, 6 Postscript figures, 1 GIF figure (Fig.3). Better version of Fig.3 and a full list of Blazar's SED found at http://www.asdc.asi.it/boomerang/. A&A, submitte

    Warming rays in cluster cool cores

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    We present a model of cosmic ray heating of clusters' cores that reproduces the observed temperature distribution in clusters by using an energy balance condition in which the emitted X-ray energy is supplied by the hadronic cosmic rays, which act as warming rays (WRs). The temperature profile of the IC gas is correlated with the WR pressure distribution and, consequently, with the non-thermal emission (radio, hard X-ray and gamma-ray) induced by the interaction of the WRs with the IC gas and magnetic field. The temperature distribution of the IC gas in both cool-core and non cool-core clusters is successfully predicted from the measured IC gas density distribution. Under this contraint, the WR model is also able to reproduce the thermal and non-thermal pressure distribution in clusters, as well as their radial entropy distribution. The WR model provides other observable features: a correlation of the pressure ratio (WRs to thermal IC gas) with the inner cluster temperature T_{inner}, a correlation of the gamma-ray luminosity with T_{inner}, a substantial number of cool-core clusters observable with the GLAST-LAT experiment, a surface brightness of radio halos in cool-core clusters that recovers the observed one, a hard X-ray emission from cool-core clusters that is systematically lower than the observed limits and yet observable with the next generation HXR experiments like Simbol-X. The specific theoretical properties and the multi-frequency distribution of the e.m. signals predicted in the WR model render it quite different from the other models proposed for the heating of clusters' cool-cores. Such differences make it possible to prove or disprove our model as an explanation of the cooling-flow problems on the basis of multi-frequency observations of galaxy clusters.Comment: 19 pages, 17 figures, A&A in pres

    Cosmic Rays, Radio Halos and Non-Thermal X-ray Emission in Clusters of Galaxies

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    We calculate the flux of radio, hard X-ray and UV radiation from clusters of galaxies as produced by synchrotron emission and Inverse Compton Scattering of electrons generated as secondaries in cosmic ray interactions in the intracluster medium. Both the spatial distribution of cosmic rays due to their diffusion and the spatial distribution of the intracluster gas are taken into account. Our calculations are specifically applied to the case of the Coma cluster. The fluxes and spectra of the radio halo emission and of the hard X-ray excess from Coma can be explained in this model if an average magnetic field B∌0.1ÎŒGB \sim 0.1\mu G is assumed. However, such a low value for the intracluster magnetic field implies a large cosmic ray energy density which in turn is responsible, through neutral pion decay, for a gamma ray flux above 100 MeV which exceeds the EGRET upper limit. This gamma ray bound can be relaxed if the hard X-ray excess and the radio halo emission from Coma are not due to the same population of electrons. We finally stress the unique role that the new generation gamma ray satellites will play to discriminate among different models for the non thermal emission in clusters of galaxies.Comment: 25 pages, 3 Figures, Latex (using epsfig,elsart), to appear in Astroparticle Physics. Astroparticle Physics, in pres

    On the ICS interpretation of the Hard X-Ray Excesses in Galaxy Clusters: the case of Ophiuchus

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    (Abridged) High-E electrons produce Hard X-Ray (HXR) emission in galaxy clusters by via Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) of CMB photons. We derive the ICS HXR emission of Ophiuchus under various scenarios: primary cosmic ray model, secondary cosmic rays model and neutralino DM annihilation scenario. We further discuss the predictions of the Warming Ray model for the cluster atmosphere. Under the assumption to fit the observed HXR emission, we find that the high-E electrons induce various consequences on the cluster atmosphere: i) primary electrons can be marginally consistent with the data provided that their spectrum is cutoff at E~30(90) MeV for spectral index of 3.5 (4.4); ii) secondary electron models from pp collisions are inconsistent with gamma-ray limits, cosmic ray protons produce too much heating of the IC gas and their pressure at the cluster center largely exceeds the thermal one; iii) secondary electron models from DM annihilation are inconsistent with gamma-ray and radio limits and electrons produce too much heating of the IC gas at the cluster center, unless the neutralino annihilation cross section is much lower than the proposed value. We conclude that ICS by secondary electrons from both neutralino DM annihilation and pp collisions cannot be the mechanism responsible for the HXR excess emission; primary electrons are still a marginally viable solution provided that their spectrum has a low-energy cutoff at E~30-90 MeV. The WR model offers, so far, the best description of the cluster in terms of temperature distribution, heating, pressure and spectral energy distribution. Fermi observations of Ophiuchus will set further constraints to this model.Comment: 10 pages, 9 figures, A&A in pres

    A possible theoretical explanation of metallicity gradients in elliptical galaxies

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    Models of chemical evolution of elliptical galaxies taking into account different escape velocities at different galactocentric radii are presented. As a consequence of this, the chemical evolution develops differently in different galactic regions; in particular, we find that the galactic wind, powered by supernovae (of type II and I) starts, under suitable conditions, in the outer regions and successively develops in the central ones. The rate of star formation (SFR) is assumed to stop after the onset of the galactic wind in each region. The main result found in the present work is that this mechanism is able to reproduce metallicity gradients, namely the gradients in the Mg2Mg_2 index, in good agreement with observational data. We also find that in order to honor the constant [Mg/Fe] ratio with galactocentric distance, as inferred from metallicity indices, a variable initial mass function as a function of galactocentric distance is required. This is only a suggestion since trends on abundances inferred just from metallicity indices are still uncertain.Comment: 18 pages, LaTeX file with 4 figures using mn.sty, submitted to MNRA