44 research outputs found

    Climate Change, the Paris agreement and Subsidiarity

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    The 2015 Paris Agreement achieved a broad international consensus on a methodology to limit emissions to control climate change. By its terms, the Paris Agreement anticipates individual action by individual nation-states. But underlying this principle stands the fact that climate change need not and should not be addressed only by nation-states. Rather, combatting climate change requires attention at multiple levels ‚Äď national, state, regional, and local ‚Äď as well as requiring a public-private partnership to engage businesses in a dedicated effort to achieve meaningful results in abatement. This article examines overlapping competencies within the European Union (‚ÄúEU‚ÄĚ) and considers how various actors within the United States federalist system are engaged in trying to combat climate change. The question regarding overlapping competencies extends beyond the legal delineation of authority. At its core is the question of how to best utilize specific qualities of various constituencies with overlapping competencies to not only harmonize efforts but also to achieve maximum utilization of the efforts of different parties. Climate change is a global problem with globally felt externalities, and it must be addressed globally. It is not one that will self-resolve. Despite extensive technological advances, we cannot artificially create a livable habitat. People are dependent upon the continuing functioning of natural systems and habitats for survival. A coordinated approach to regulation among layers of government is essential to a properly functioning, fully utilized approach to climate change. This article thus addresses issues of European subsidiarity and American federalism in the context of climate change. Part II provides an overview of the basic issues at stake and briefly sketches the effectiveness of international treaties designed to address climate change and other approaches to date. No prior international effort created the cause for optimism that attended the signing of the Paris Agreement. Part III of this article takes a detailed look at issues of subsidiarity and places the discussion in the context of climate change. Part IV examines the issue within the United States, as the federal government‚Äôs approaches to climate change have been dramatically revised over the past couple of years

    Stephen Breyer giurista democratico

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    Stephen Breyer democratic jurist - On the occasion of Breyer's retirement after twenty-eight years as Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, this essay profiles him as an atypical jurist whose approach to the Constitution is of extreme interest. Breyer has been able to display an extraordinary capacity in finding solutions far from the polarization that has characterized the last decades of the U.S. politics. As he wrote most recently in Dobbs, in a constitutional system where unelected judges have the power to check elected officials, the most powerful tool at Court's disposal is acting ‚Äúwith judicial modesty and humility‚ÄĚ, guided by legal principles and not politics

    Gobernanza de los macrodatos y democracia representativa

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    The ‚Äúbig data‚ÄĚ phenomenon turns out to have a significant impact on¬†the political-institutional sphere and on traditional channels of political¬†representation. The latest U.S. presidential election is a clear proof. The¬†electoral campaign which allowed Trump to get to the Presidency is just¬†the last example showing how the use of data is changing the relationship¬†between citizens and institutions. It would be wrong, however, thinking¬†that the mentioned phenomenon is limited to the U.S. reality. Big data,¬†as has been highlighted in the literature, differ from traditional data (or¬†small data) for three main characteristics, the so-called 3Vs: volume,¬†velocity and variety. The impact on the political institutions side is considerable,¬†and is determined above all by the strong predictive capacity as¬†a typical feature of big data utilization. Processing large amount of data,¬†ends up in a close and reliable picture of what is going to happen, where¬†the more traditional small data have always been characterized by inaccuracy¬†and disorder. This is what data mining (i.e. the set of techniques¬†and methodologies aimed at extracting information from large amounts¬†of data) apply for. In a phase where the political representation circuit¬†seems to be afflicted by an irreversible crisis, big data risks to transfigure¬†the relationship between citizens and institutions and it is worth of a deep¬†analysis.Summary:1. Big data and democracy. ‚Äď 2. The multi-functionality of big data. ‚Äď 3.¬†Big data, populismo and representative democracy.El fen√≥meno de los macrodatos tiene un impacto significativo en el √°mbito pol√≠tico-institucional y en los canales tradicionales de representaci√≥n¬†pol√≠tica. La √ļltima elecci√≥n presidencial de los Estados Unidos es una¬†prueba clara. La campa√Īa electoral que permiti√≥ a Trump llegar a la Presidencia¬†es solo el √ļltimo ejemplo que muestra c√≥mo el uso de los datos est√°¬†cambiando la relaci√≥n entre ciudadanos e instituciones. Sin embargo, ser√≠a¬†err√≥neo pensar que el fen√≥meno mencionado se limita a la realidad de los¬†Estados Unidos. Los macrodatos, como se ha destacado en la literatura, difieren¬†de los datos tradicionales (o datos peque√Īos) para tres caracter√≠sticas¬†principales, las llamadas 3V: volumen, velocidad y variedad. El impacto¬†en el lado de las instituciones pol√≠ticas es considerable, y est√° determinado¬†sobre todo por la fuerte capacidad predictiva como caracter√≠stica t√≠pica de¬†la utilizaci√≥n de los macrodatos. El procesamiento de una gran cantidad de¬†datos termina en una imagen cercana y confiable de lo que suceder√°, donde¬†los peque√Īos datos m√°s tradicionales siempre se han caracterizado por¬†la inexactitud y el desorden. Esto es lo que se aplica a la miner√≠a de datos¬†(es decir, el conjunto de t√©cnicas y metodolog√≠as destinadas a extraer informaci√≥n¬†de grandes cantidades de datos). En una fase en la que el circuito¬†de representaci√≥n pol√≠tica parece estar afectado por una crisis irreversible,¬†los macrodatos corren el riesgo de transfigurar la relaci√≥n entre ciudadanos e instituciones y merece un an√°lisis profundo

    Variabilit? genetica in popolazioni di Tortrix viridana L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) associate alle diverse querce della Sardegna

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    A preliminary analysis of COI and COII gene variability was carried out in Sardinian populations of Tortrix viridana. The aim of the study was to investigate the genetic structure and mitochondrial haplotype variation in populations associated with deciduous (Quercus pubescens) and evergreen (Q. suber and Q ilex) oaks. Forty-four haplotypes out of 87 individuals were found: three haplotypes showed a high frequency (23%, 16% and 10%) and were largely shared among populations. Hierarchical AMOVA showed no significant differentiation grouping populations for geographic areas or oak species, in spite of significant divergences structuring populations for different duration in egg development (early- vs late-hatching). However a high haplotype diversity and a low nucleotide diversity have been observed

    Libera circolazione: Regioni, colori, provvedimenti

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    La pandemia, o meglio la sua gestione, ha esacerbato il conflitto tra lo Stato e le Regioni: il Governo ha denunciato la inefficiente azione regionale nel contrasto alla diffusione del Covid-19; le Regioni si sono lamentate perch√© lo Stato non ha garantito il necessario supporto ai territori, mettendo in crisi la forma di Stato regionale italiana. Molte Regioni, tra il 13 marzo e il 1¬į aprile 2021, hanno adottato ordinanze che vietavano l‚Äôaccesso nei rispettivi territori ai non residenti se non per comprovate esigenze lavorative, situazioni di necessit√†, ovvero per motivi di salute. Il divieto ha colpito, in particolare, la possibilit√† di raggiungere le cosiddette seconde case, sollevando tra gli studiosi dubbi di legittimit√† costituzionale in riferimento al principio costituzionale della libera circolazione e, ancor di pi√Ļ, al principio per cui le Regioni non possono ostacolare in alcun modo la circolazione sul territorio nazionale. Il Volume raccoglie le riflessioni sul tema, di alcuni costituzionalisti proposte durante il webinar organizzato dal Dipartimento di Giurisprudenza dell‚ÄôUniversit√† di Cagliari nel marzo del 2021

    La giurisprudenza comunitaria e i negoziati informali preventivi: i triloghi alla prova del giudice

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    Trilogues are tripartite meetings, that is informal negotiations on legislative proposals between the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union and the European Commission aimed at reaching early agreements on new EU legislation. Since their first appearance, trilogues have developed in practice from the need of the two branches of the legislature to manage their interdependence. Such inter-institutional negotiations have now become standard practice for the adoption of EU legislative acts. There is a clear benefit to reaching an early deal. This avoids the legislative proposal going back round the Parliament and Council for a second or even a third reading, which can add years to the decision-making process. However, trilogues are problematic from a democratic perspective: they are secluded; involve a restricted number of participants selected according to unclear criteria; and produce intermediary outcomes that have to be sanctioned by formal decision-making processes. Scholars and professionals have inquired if trilogues weaken the democracy and transparency of the EU law-making procedure and, definitely, of the EU action. Recent EU case-law addresses those critical issues providing for their valuable contribution to the efficiency of the EU law-making process, but even over the sustainable trade-off between their legitimacy and democracy shape over critics’ openness and transparency claims

    Le ordinanze della Regione Sardegna contro viaggiatori e non residenti: tamponi preventivi e divieto di raggiungere le seconde case

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    During the management of the pandemic, the resilience of our regional form of State has been subjected to a significant stress test. The issuance by the Sardinia Region of ordinances limiting the access in their territories to non-residents in order to reach the so-called vacation homes raises considerable perplexity of some fundamental constitutional principles. The author proposes a reconstruction of the current legislative framework for the contrast to the spread of Covid-19 from which it results, under different profiles, the illegitimacy of many of the cited regional ordinances

    La specialità al rovescio, in Deplano R. (a cura di) i, Carocci 2008

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    La celebrazione dei 60 anni di vita della Costituzione e dello Statuto speciale per la Sardegna rappresenta un‚Äôoccasione propizia per interrogarsi sull‚Äôodierno rapporto tra i due atti costituzionali. Rappresenta, in particolare, un‚Äôutile occasione per riflettere sul significato della specialit√† oggi, se cio√® essa continui ad essere foriera di effettive condizioni di favore come lo era stata 60 anni fa. Nessuno dubita che l‚Äôintroduzione della specialit√† e la conseguente approvazione degli Statuti di autonomia siano state preziosi e insostituibili strumenti di sviluppo e di crescita. In quel contesto storico, la specialit√† ha sicuramente rappresentato la possibilit√† di utilizzare strumenti derogatori rispetto alla Costituzione italiana che hanno consentito alla Sardegna di crescere rapidamente e, grazie a categorie giuridiche peculiari che meglio si adattassero alle sue esigenze, adottare opportune politiche di sviluppo. Eppure questa iniziale situazione di effettivo vantaggio delle regioni speciali rispetto a quelle ordinarie si √® presto affievolita. Il capitolo affronta il crescente distacco tra le regioni ordinarie e quelle speciali in relazione delle innovazioni ordinamentali introdotte con le leggi ‚ÄúBassanini‚ÄĚ e con la legge costituzionale n. 3 del 2001, ponendo in relazione il paradossale rapporto tra garanzie della specialit√† e specialit√† stessa
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