2,522 research outputs found

### Stationary and Transient Work-Fluctuation Theorems for a Dragged Brownian Particle

Recently Wang et al. carried out a laboratory experiment, where a Brownian
particle was dragged through a fluid by a harmonic force with constant velocity
of its center. This experiment confirmed a theoretically predicted work related
integrated (I) Transient Fluctuation Theorem (ITFT), which gives an expression
for the ratio for the probability to find positive or negative values for the
fluctuations of the total work done on the system in a given time in a
transient state. The corresponding integrated stationary state fluctuation
theorem (ISSFT) was not observed. Using an overdamped Langevin equation and an
arbitrary motion for the center of the harmonic force, all quantities of
interest for these theorems and the corresponding non-integrated ones (TFT and
SSFT, resp.) are theoretically explicitly obtained in this paper. While the
(I)TFT is satisfied for all times, the (I)SSFT only holds asymptotically in
time. Suggestions for further experiments with arbitrary velocity of the
harmonic force and in which also the ISSFT could be observed, are given. In
addition, a non-trivial long-time relation between the ITFT and the ISSFT was
discovered, which could be observed experimentally, especially in the case of a
resonant circular motion of the center of the harmonic force.Comment: 20 pages, 3 figure

### On the Fluctuation Relation for Nose-Hoover Boundary Thermostated Systems

We discuss the transient and steady state fluctuation relation for a
mechanical system in contact with two deterministic thermostats at different
temperatures. The system is a modified Lorentz gas in which the fixed
scatterers exchange energy with the gas of particles, and the thermostats are
modelled by two Nos\'e-Hoover thermostats applied at the boundaries of the
system. The transient fluctuation relation, which holds only for a precise
choice of the initial ensemble, is verified at all times, as expected. Times
longer than the mesoscopic scale, needed for local equilibrium to be settled,
are required if a different initial ensemble is considered. This shows how the
transient fluctuation relation asymptotically leads to the steady state
relation when, as explicitly checked in our systems, the condition found in
[D.J. Searles, {\em et al.}, J. Stat. Phys. 128, 1337 (2007)], for the validity
of the steady state fluctuation relation, is verified. For the steady state
fluctuations of the phase space contraction rate \zL and of the dissipation
function \zW, a similar relaxation regime at shorter averaging times is
found. The quantity \zW satisfies with good accuracy the fluctuation relation
for times larger than the mesoscopic time scale; the quantity \zL appears to
begin a monotonic convergence after such times. This is consistent with the
fact that \zW and \zL differ by a total time derivative, and that the tails
of the probability distribution function of \zL are Gaussian.Comment: Major revision. Fig.10 was added. Version to appear in Journal of
Statistical Physic

### Automated identification of Fos expression

The concentration of Fos, a protein encoded by the immediate-early gene c-fos, provides a measure of synaptic activity that may not parallel the electrical activity of neurons. Such a measure is important for the difficult problem of identifying dynamic properties of neuronal circuitries activated by a variety of stimuli and behaviours. We employ two-stage statistical pattern recognition to identify cellular nuclei that express Fos in two-dimensional sections of rat forebrain after administration of antipsychotic drugs. In stage one, we distinguish dark-stained candidate nuclei from image background by a thresholding algorithm and record size and shape measurements of these objects. In stage two, we compare performance of linear and quadratic discriminants, nearest-neighbour and artificial neural network classifiers that employ functions of these measurements to label candidate objects as either Fos nuclei, two touching Fos nuclei or irrelevant background material. New images of neighbouring brain tissue serve as test sets to assess generalizability of the best derived classification rule, as determined by lowest cross-validation misclassification rate. Three experts, two internal and one external, compare manual and automated results for accuracy assessment. Analyses of a subset of images on two separate occasions provide quantitative measures of inter- and intra-expert consistency. We conclude that our automated procedure yields results that compare favourably with those of the experts and thus has potential to remove much of the tedium, subjectivity and irreproducibility of current Fos identification methods in digital microscopy

### The Steady State Fluctuation Relation for the Dissipation Function

We give a proof of transient fluctuation relations for the entropy production
(dissipation function) in nonequilibrium systems, which is valid for most time
reversible dynamics. We then consider the conditions under which a transient
fluctuation relation yields a steady state fluctuation relation for driven
nonequilibrium systems whose transients relax, producing a unique
nonequilibrium steady state. Although the necessary and sufficient conditions
for the production of a unique nonequilibrium steady state are unknown, if such
a steady state exists, the generation of the steady state fluctuation relation
from the transient relation is shown to be very general. It is essentially a
consequence of time reversibility and of a form of decay of correlations in the
dissipation, which is needed also for, e.g., the existence of transport
coefficients. Because of this generality the resulting steady state fluctuation
relation has the same degree of robustness as do equilibrium thermodynamic
equalities. The steady state fluctuation relation for the dissipation stands in
contrast with the one for the phase space compression factor, whose convergence
is problematic, for systems close to equilibrium. We examine some model
dynamics that have been considered previously, and show how they are described
in the context of this work.Comment: 30 pages, 1 figur

### Fluctuation formula for nonreversible dynamics in the thermostated Lorentz gas

We investigate numerically the validity of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation
formula in the two and three dimensional periodic Lorentz gas subjected to
constant electric and magnetic fields and thermostated by the Gaussian
isokinetic thermostat. The magnetic field breaks the time reversal symmetry,
and by choosing its orientation with respect to the lattice one can have either
a generalized reversing symmetry or no reversibility at all. Our results
indicate that the scaling property described by the fluctuation formula may be
approximately valid for large fluctuations even in the absence of
reversibility.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figure

### Quantum pumping and dissipation: from closed to open systems

Current can be pumped through a closed system by changing parameters (or
fields) in time. The Kubo formula allows to distinguish between dissipative and
non-dissipative contributions to the current. We obtain a Green function
expression and an $S$ matrix formula for the associated terms in the
generalized conductance matrix: the "geometric magnetism" term that corresponds
to adiabatic transport; and the "Fermi golden rule" term which is responsible
to the irreversible absorption of energy. We explain the subtle limit of an
infinite system, and demonstrate the consistency with the formulas by Landauer
and Buttiker, Pretre and Thomas. We also discuss the generalization of the
fluctuation-dissipation relation, and the implications of the Onsager
reciprocity.Comment: 4 page paper, 1 figure (published version) + 2 page appendi

### Outpatient Antibiotic Therapy for Osteomyelitis

To the editor - The March 28, 1986, issue of JAMA contained an article
offering an economic analysis of outpatient
therapy for osteomyelitis.1 This
article is now being distributed by
representatives of the Smith Klein &
French pharmaceutical company for the
purpose of encouraging the use of the
cephalosporin antibiotic cefonicid (Monocid)
in this setting. In their introduction,
the authors justify their analysis
by noting that "a new. . . cephalosporin
antibiotic, cefonicid sodium, has
been shown to be effective in treating
osteomyelitis in the outpatient setting.

### Sub-natural linewidth in room-temperature Rb vapor using a control laser

We demonstrate two ways of obtaining sub-natural linewidth for probe
absorption through room-temperature Rb vapor. Both techniques use a control
laser that drives the transition from a different ground state. The coherent
drive splits the excited state into two dressed states (Autler-Townes doublet),
which have asymmetric linewidths when the control laser is detuned from
resonance. In the first technique, the laser has a large detuning of 1.18 GHz
to reduce the linewidth to 5.1 MHz from the Doppler width of 560 MHz. In the
second technique, we use a counter-propagating pump beam to eliminate the
first-order Doppler effect. The unperturbed probe linewidth is about 13 MHz,
which is reduced below 3 MHz (0.5 \Gamma) at a detuning of 11.5 MHz.Comment: 4 pages, 7 figure

### First-principles study of stability and vibrational properties of tetragonal PbTiO_3

A first-principles study of the vibrational modes of PbTiO_3 in the
ferroelectric tetragonal phase has been performed at all the main symmetry
points of the Brillouin zone (BZ). The calculations use the local-density
approximation and ultrasoft pseudopotentials with a plane-wave basis, and
reproduce well the available experimental information on the modes at the Gamma
point, including the LO-TO splittings. The work was motivated in part by a
previously reported transition to an orthorhombic phase at low temperatures
[(J. Kobayashi, Y. Uesu, and Y. Sakemi, Phys. Rev. B {\bf 28}, 3866 (1983)]. We
show that a linear coupling of orthorhombic strain to one of the modes at Gamma
plays a role in the discussion of the possibility of this phase transition.
However, no mechanical instabilities (soft modes) are found, either at Gamma or
at any of the other high-symmetry points of the BZ.Comment: 8 pages, two-column style with 3 postscript figures embedded. Uses
REVTEX and epsf macros. Also available at
http://www.physics.rutgers.edu/~dhv/preprints/index.html#ag_pbt

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