2,522 research outputs found

    Stationary and Transient Work-Fluctuation Theorems for a Dragged Brownian Particle

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    Recently Wang et al. carried out a laboratory experiment, where a Brownian particle was dragged through a fluid by a harmonic force with constant velocity of its center. This experiment confirmed a theoretically predicted work related integrated (I) Transient Fluctuation Theorem (ITFT), which gives an expression for the ratio for the probability to find positive or negative values for the fluctuations of the total work done on the system in a given time in a transient state. The corresponding integrated stationary state fluctuation theorem (ISSFT) was not observed. Using an overdamped Langevin equation and an arbitrary motion for the center of the harmonic force, all quantities of interest for these theorems and the corresponding non-integrated ones (TFT and SSFT, resp.) are theoretically explicitly obtained in this paper. While the (I)TFT is satisfied for all times, the (I)SSFT only holds asymptotically in time. Suggestions for further experiments with arbitrary velocity of the harmonic force and in which also the ISSFT could be observed, are given. In addition, a non-trivial long-time relation between the ITFT and the ISSFT was discovered, which could be observed experimentally, especially in the case of a resonant circular motion of the center of the harmonic force.Comment: 20 pages, 3 figure

    On the Fluctuation Relation for Nose-Hoover Boundary Thermostated Systems

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    We discuss the transient and steady state fluctuation relation for a mechanical system in contact with two deterministic thermostats at different temperatures. The system is a modified Lorentz gas in which the fixed scatterers exchange energy with the gas of particles, and the thermostats are modelled by two Nos\'e-Hoover thermostats applied at the boundaries of the system. The transient fluctuation relation, which holds only for a precise choice of the initial ensemble, is verified at all times, as expected. Times longer than the mesoscopic scale, needed for local equilibrium to be settled, are required if a different initial ensemble is considered. This shows how the transient fluctuation relation asymptotically leads to the steady state relation when, as explicitly checked in our systems, the condition found in [D.J. Searles, {\em et al.}, J. Stat. Phys. 128, 1337 (2007)], for the validity of the steady state fluctuation relation, is verified. For the steady state fluctuations of the phase space contraction rate \zL and of the dissipation function \zW, a similar relaxation regime at shorter averaging times is found. The quantity \zW satisfies with good accuracy the fluctuation relation for times larger than the mesoscopic time scale; the quantity \zL appears to begin a monotonic convergence after such times. This is consistent with the fact that \zW and \zL differ by a total time derivative, and that the tails of the probability distribution function of \zL are Gaussian.Comment: Major revision. Fig.10 was added. Version to appear in Journal of Statistical Physic

    Automated identification of Fos expression

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    The concentration of Fos, a protein encoded by the immediate-early gene c-fos, provides a measure of synaptic activity that may not parallel the electrical activity of neurons. Such a measure is important for the difficult problem of identifying dynamic properties of neuronal circuitries activated by a variety of stimuli and behaviours. We employ two-stage statistical pattern recognition to identify cellular nuclei that express Fos in two-dimensional sections of rat forebrain after administration of antipsychotic drugs. In stage one, we distinguish dark-stained candidate nuclei from image background by a thresholding algorithm and record size and shape measurements of these objects. In stage two, we compare performance of linear and quadratic discriminants, nearest-neighbour and artificial neural network classifiers that employ functions of these measurements to label candidate objects as either Fos nuclei, two touching Fos nuclei or irrelevant background material. New images of neighbouring brain tissue serve as test sets to assess generalizability of the best derived classification rule, as determined by lowest cross-validation misclassification rate. Three experts, two internal and one external, compare manual and automated results for accuracy assessment. Analyses of a subset of images on two separate occasions provide quantitative measures of inter- and intra-expert consistency. We conclude that our automated procedure yields results that compare favourably with those of the experts and thus has potential to remove much of the tedium, subjectivity and irreproducibility of current Fos identification methods in digital microscopy

    The Steady State Fluctuation Relation for the Dissipation Function

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    We give a proof of transient fluctuation relations for the entropy production (dissipation function) in nonequilibrium systems, which is valid for most time reversible dynamics. We then consider the conditions under which a transient fluctuation relation yields a steady state fluctuation relation for driven nonequilibrium systems whose transients relax, producing a unique nonequilibrium steady state. Although the necessary and sufficient conditions for the production of a unique nonequilibrium steady state are unknown, if such a steady state exists, the generation of the steady state fluctuation relation from the transient relation is shown to be very general. It is essentially a consequence of time reversibility and of a form of decay of correlations in the dissipation, which is needed also for, e.g., the existence of transport coefficients. Because of this generality the resulting steady state fluctuation relation has the same degree of robustness as do equilibrium thermodynamic equalities. The steady state fluctuation relation for the dissipation stands in contrast with the one for the phase space compression factor, whose convergence is problematic, for systems close to equilibrium. We examine some model dynamics that have been considered previously, and show how they are described in the context of this work.Comment: 30 pages, 1 figur

    Fluctuation formula for nonreversible dynamics in the thermostated Lorentz gas

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    We investigate numerically the validity of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation formula in the two and three dimensional periodic Lorentz gas subjected to constant electric and magnetic fields and thermostated by the Gaussian isokinetic thermostat. The magnetic field breaks the time reversal symmetry, and by choosing its orientation with respect to the lattice one can have either a generalized reversing symmetry or no reversibility at all. Our results indicate that the scaling property described by the fluctuation formula may be approximately valid for large fluctuations even in the absence of reversibility.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figure

    Quantum pumping and dissipation: from closed to open systems

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    Current can be pumped through a closed system by changing parameters (or fields) in time. The Kubo formula allows to distinguish between dissipative and non-dissipative contributions to the current. We obtain a Green function expression and an SS matrix formula for the associated terms in the generalized conductance matrix: the "geometric magnetism" term that corresponds to adiabatic transport; and the "Fermi golden rule" term which is responsible to the irreversible absorption of energy. We explain the subtle limit of an infinite system, and demonstrate the consistency with the formulas by Landauer and Buttiker, Pretre and Thomas. We also discuss the generalization of the fluctuation-dissipation relation, and the implications of the Onsager reciprocity.Comment: 4 page paper, 1 figure (published version) + 2 page appendi

    Outpatient Antibiotic Therapy for Osteomyelitis

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    To the editor - The March 28, 1986, issue of JAMA contained an article offering an economic analysis of outpatient therapy for osteomyelitis.1 This article is now being distributed by representatives of the Smith Klein & French pharmaceutical company for the purpose of encouraging the use of the cephalosporin antibiotic cefonicid (Monocid) in this setting. In their introduction, the authors justify their analysis by noting that "a new. . . cephalosporin antibiotic, cefonicid sodium, has been shown to be effective in treating osteomyelitis in the outpatient setting.

    Sub-natural linewidth in room-temperature Rb vapor using a control laser

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    We demonstrate two ways of obtaining sub-natural linewidth for probe absorption through room-temperature Rb vapor. Both techniques use a control laser that drives the transition from a different ground state. The coherent drive splits the excited state into two dressed states (Autler-Townes doublet), which have asymmetric linewidths when the control laser is detuned from resonance. In the first technique, the laser has a large detuning of 1.18 GHz to reduce the linewidth to 5.1 MHz from the Doppler width of 560 MHz. In the second technique, we use a counter-propagating pump beam to eliminate the first-order Doppler effect. The unperturbed probe linewidth is about 13 MHz, which is reduced below 3 MHz (0.5 \Gamma) at a detuning of 11.5 MHz.Comment: 4 pages, 7 figure

    First-principles study of stability and vibrational properties of tetragonal PbTiO_3

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    A first-principles study of the vibrational modes of PbTiO_3 in the ferroelectric tetragonal phase has been performed at all the main symmetry points of the Brillouin zone (BZ). The calculations use the local-density approximation and ultrasoft pseudopotentials with a plane-wave basis, and reproduce well the available experimental information on the modes at the Gamma point, including the LO-TO splittings. The work was motivated in part by a previously reported transition to an orthorhombic phase at low temperatures [(J. Kobayashi, Y. Uesu, and Y. Sakemi, Phys. Rev. B {\bf 28}, 3866 (1983)]. We show that a linear coupling of orthorhombic strain to one of the modes at Gamma plays a role in the discussion of the possibility of this phase transition. However, no mechanical instabilities (soft modes) are found, either at Gamma or at any of the other high-symmetry points of the BZ.Comment: 8 pages, two-column style with 3 postscript figures embedded. Uses REVTEX and epsf macros. Also available at http://www.physics.rutgers.edu/~dhv/preprints/index.html#ag_pbt
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