3,151 research outputs found

    Blockade of T-cell activation by dithiocarbamates involves novel mechanisms of inhibition of nuclear factor of activated T cells.

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    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) have recently been reported as powerful inhibitors of NF-kappaB activation in a number of cell types. Given the role of this transcription factor in the regulation of gene expression in the inflammatory response, NF-kappaB inhibitors have been suggested as potential therapeutic drugs for inflammatory diseases. We show here that DTCs inhibited both interleukin 2 (IL-2) synthesis and membrane expression of antigens which are induced during T-cell activation. This inhibition, which occurred with a parallel activation of c-Jun transactivating functions and expression, was reflected by transfection experiments at the IL-2 promoter level, and involved not only the inhibition of NF-kappaB-driven reporter activation but also that of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Accordingly, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) indicated that pyrrolidine DTC (PDTC) prevented NF-kappaB, and NFAT DNA-binding activity in T cells stimulated with either phorbol myristate acetate plus ionophore or antibodies against the CD3-T-cell receptor complex and simultaneously activated the binding of AP-1. Furthermore, PDTC differentially targeted both NFATp and NFATc family members, inhibiting the transactivation functions of NFATp and mRNA induction of NFATc. Strikingly, Western blotting and immunocytochemical experiments indicated that PDTC promoted a transient and rapid shuttling of NFATp and NFATc, leading to their accelerated export from the nucleus of activated T cells. We propose that the activation of an NFAT kinase by PDTC could be responsible for the rapid shuttling of the NFAT, therefore transiently converting the sustained transactivation of this transcription factor that occurs during lymphocyte activation, and show that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) can act by directly phosphorylating NFATp. In addition, the combined inhibitory effects on NFAT and NF-KB support a potential use of DTCs as immunosuppressants

    Impact of prevalent and incident vertebral fractures on utility: results from a patient-based and a population-based sample

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    Data are scarce on the impact of vertebral fractures (VFX) on utility. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of prevalent and incident VFX on utility in both a patient-based and population-based sample. Data from the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) study (n = 550 for prevalent VFX and n = 174 for incident VFX) and the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study (EPOS) (n = 236) were used. Utility was assessed by the index score of the EQ-5D. In the MORE study, highly statistically significant associations were found between utility and the presence of prevalent VFX (p < 0.001), number of prevalent VFX (p < 0.001), severity of prevalent VFX (p < 0.001), the combination of number and severity of prevalent VFX (p = 0.001) and location of prevalent VFX (p = 0.019). The mean utility was significantly lower among women who suffered an incident VFX (utility = 0.67) than among women who did not (utility = 0.77) (p = 0.005), although utility loss was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.142). In EPOS, the combination of number and severity of incident VFX was significantly related to utility (p = 0.030). In conclusion, utility is lower among persons with prevalent and incident VFX, especially in a patient-based sample. Utility loss was not significantly different between women without and with incident VFX

    Measurement of the t t-bar production cross section in the dilepton channel in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    The t t-bar production cross section (sigma[t t-bar]) is measured in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV in data collected by the CMS experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.3 inverse femtobarns. The measurement is performed in events with two leptons (electrons or muons) in the final state, at least two jets identified as jets originating from b quarks, and the presence of an imbalance in transverse momentum. The measured value of sigma[t t-bar] for a top-quark mass of 172.5 GeV is 161.9 +/- 2.5 (stat.) +5.1/-5.0 (syst.) +/- 3.6(lumi.) pb, consistent with the prediction of the standard model.Comment: Replaced with published version. Included journal reference and DO

    Measurement of the Z/gamma* + b-jet cross section in pp collisions at 7 TeV