120 research outputs found

    Low Energy Antineutrino Detection Using Neutrino Capture on EC Decaying Nuclei

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    In this paper we present a study of the interaction of low energy electron antineutrino on nuclei that undergo electron capture. We show that the two corresponding crossed reactions have a sizeable cross section and are both suitable for detection of low energy antineutrino. However, only in case very specific conditions on the Q-value of the decay are met or significant improvements on the performances of ion storage rings are achieved, these reactions could be exploited in the future to address the long standing problem of a direct detection of Cosmological Neutrino Background.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figure

    Metabolic profile and root development of Hypericum perforatum L. in vitro roots under stress conditions due to chitosan treatment and culture time

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    The responses of Hypericum perforatum root cultures to chitosan elicitation had been investigated through 1H-NMR-based metabolomics associated with morpho-anatomical analyses. The root metabolome was influenced by two factors, i.e., time of culture (associated with biomass growth and related ‚Äúovercrowding stress‚ÄĚ) and chitosan elicitation. ANOVA simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) modeling showed that these factors act independently. In response to the increase of biomass density over time, a decrease in the synthesis of isoleucine, valine, pyruvate, methylamine, etanolamine, trigonelline, glutamine and fatty acids, and an increase in the synthesis of phenolic compounds, such as xanthones, epicatechin, gallic, and shikimic acid were observed. Among the xanthones, brasilixanthone B has been identified for the first time in chitosan-elicited root cultures of H. perforatum. Chitosan treatment associated to a slowdown of root biomass growth caused an increase in DMAPP and a decrease in stigmasterol, shikimic acid, and tryptophan levels. The histological analysis of chitosan-treated roots revealed a marked swelling of the root apex, mainly due to the hypertrophy of the first two sub-epidermal cell layers. In addition, periclinal divisions in hypertrophic cortical cells, resulting in an increase of cortical layers, were frequently observed. Most of the metabolic variations as well as the morpho-anatomical alterations occurred within 72 h from the elicitation, suggesting an early response of H. perforatum roots to chitosan elicitation. The obtained results improve the knowledge of the root responses to biotic stress and provide useful information to optimize the biotechnological production of plant compounds of industrial interest

    Sheila Jasanoff: localizando o global

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    Em tempos em que todo conhecimento √© situado e n√£o mais universal e neutro, a tradu√ß√£o da reflex√£o de Sheila Jasanoff sobre como dirigir para o bem nossa habilidade inventiva, profundamente humana coloca uma quest√£o para a academia brasileira: como situar essa reflex√£o? Se o tempo √© de mudan√ßa para o Ocidente imperial, √© plaus√≠vel aproveitar esse tempo para problematizarmos os blocos constituintes da raz√£o p√ļblica no Brasil. E n√£o h√° motivo para que n√£o consideremos as sinaliza√ß√Ķes que v√™m de Harvard n√£o mais para ser tomadas como saberes privilegiadamente autorizados, de resto inadmiss√≠veis em um mundo que se quer desplatonizado, mas sim como proposi√ß√Ķes a ser situadas em processos de escolhas e transforma√ß√Ķes

    WARP liquid argon detector for dark matter survey

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    The WARP programme is a graded programme intended to search for cold Dark Matter in the form of WIMP's. These particles may produce via weak interactions nuclear recoils in the energy range 10-100 keV. A cryogenic noble liquid like argon, already used in the realization of very large detector, permits the simultaneous detection of both ionisation and scintillation induced by an interaction, suggesting the possibility of discriminating between nuclear recoils and electrons mediated events. A 2.3 litres two-phase argon detector prototype has been used to perform several tests on the proposed technique. Next step is the construction of a 100 litres sensitive volume device with potential sensitivity a factor 100 better than presently existing experiments.Comment: Proceeding of the 6th UCLA Symposium on Sources and detection of Dark Matter and dark Energy in the Univers

    Glycosylation-dependent circuits synchronize the pro-angiogenic and immunoregulatory functions of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer

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    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) favor tumorprogression and therapy resistance by reprogramming antitumor immunity and promoting angiogenesis. To elucidatethe mechanisms that synchronize these functions, we investigated the role of glycosylation-dependent, galectin-1(Gal1)-driven circuits in coupling immunoregulatory andpro-angiogenic activities of MDSCs. Flow cytometry andHPLC-HILIC/WAX revealed an activation-dependent glycanprofile in monocytic and polymorphonuclear MDSCs (p=0.03)that controlled Gal1 binding and was more prominent in tumor microenvironments. Exposure to Gal1 led to concomitant activation of immunosuppression and angiogenesisprograms in bone marrow derived MDSCs. Flow cytometryof Gal1-conditioned MDSCs showed higher expression ofimmune checkpoint molecules, including programmed deathligand-1 (PD-L1) (p=0.005) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) (p=0.037) and greater production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) (p=0.02). In vitro,Gal1-conditioned MDSCs showed greater T-cell suppressive capacity (p=0.03) and higher IL-10 (p=0.04) and IL-27(p=0.003) secretion. These effects were accompanied by enhanced endothelial cell migration, tube formation, 3D-sprouting and vascularization (p<0.05). In vivo, Gal1-conditionedMDSCs accelerated tumor growth (p=0.001) and fosteredimmune evasion and vascularization programs in Gal1-deficient colorectal tumors. Mechanistically, mass spectrometry,immunoblot and blocking assays identified the CD18/CD11b/CD177 complex as a bona fide Gal1 receptor and STAT3 asa key signaling pathway coupling these functions. Accordingly, a combined algorithm that integrates Gal1 expressionand MDSC phenotype, showed critical prognostic value bydelineating the immune landscape and clinical outcome ofhuman cancers. Thus, glycosylation-dependent Gal1-drivencircuits favor tumor progression by coupling immunoregulatory and pro-angiogenic programs of MDSCs via CD18- andSTAT3-dependent pathways.Fil: Blidner, Ada Gabriela. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Fundaci√≥n de Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Bach, Camila Agustina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Fundaci√≥n de Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Garc√≠a, Pablo Alfredo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Mendoza. Instituto de Histolog√≠a y Embriolog√≠a de Mendoza Dr. Mario H. Burgos. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Facultad de Ciencias M√©dicas. Instituto de Histolog√≠a y Embriolog√≠a de Mendoza Dr. Mario H. Burgos; ArgentinaFil: Cagnoni, Alejandro. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Fundaci√≥n de Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Manselle Cocco, Montana Nicolle. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Fundaci√≥n de Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Pinto, Nicol√°s Alejandro. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Fundaci√≥n de Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Torres, Nicol√°s. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Fundaci√≥n de Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Gatto, Sabrina Gisela. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Fundaci√≥n de Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Sarrias, Luciana. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Oficina de Coordinaci√≥n Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Qu√≠mica y F√≠sico-Qu√≠mica Biol√≥gicas "Prof. Alejandro C. Paladini". Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioqu√≠mica. Instituto de Qu√≠mica y F√≠sico-Qu√≠mica Biol√≥gicas; ArgentinaFil: Giribaldi, Mar√≠a Laura. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Fundaci√≥n de Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Merlo, Joaqu√≠n Pedro. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Fundaci√≥n de Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: P√©rez S√°ez, Juan Manuel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Fundaci√≥n de Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Salatino, Mariana. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Fundaci√≥n de Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Troncoso, Mar√≠a Fernanda. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Oficina de Coordinaci√≥n Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Qu√≠mica y F√≠sico-Qu√≠mica Biol√≥gicas "Prof. Alejandro C. Paladini". Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioqu√≠mica. Instituto de Qu√≠mica y F√≠sico-Qu√≠mica Biol√≥gicas; ArgentinaFil: Mari√Īo, Karina Valeria. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Fundaci√≥n de Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Abba, Mart√≠n Carlos. Universidad Nacional de La Plata; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas; ArgentinaFil: Croci, Diego O.. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Mendoza. Instituto de Histolog√≠a y Embriolog√≠a de Mendoza Dr. Mario H. Burgos. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Facultad de Ciencias M√©dicas. Instituto de Histolog√≠a y Embriolog√≠a de Mendoza Dr. Mario H. Burgos; ArgentinaFil: Rabinovich, Gabriel Adri√°n. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Fundaci√≥n de Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biolog√≠a y Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaLXVI Annual Meeting of Sociedad Argentina de Investigaci√≥n Cl√≠nica; LXIX Annual Meeting of Sociedad Argentina de Inmunolog√≠a; LIII Annual Meeting of Asociaci√≥n Argentina de Farmacolog√≠a Experimental and XI Annual Meeting of Asociaci√≥n Argentina de NanomedicinasArgentinaSociedad Argentina de Investigaci√≥n Cl√≠nicaSociedad Argentina de Inmunolog√≠aAsociaci√≥n Argentina de Farmacolog√≠a ExperimentalAsociaci√≥n Argentina de Nanomedicin

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    WARP: a double phase Argon programme for Dark Matter detection

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    WARP (Wimp ARgon Programme) is a double phase Argon detector for Dark Matter detection under construction at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. We present recent results obtained operating deep underground a prototype detector with sensitive mass 2.3 litres. 1. WARP: a double phase argon detector for Dark Matter detection. A double phase Argon detector offers unique sensitivity for the search of dark matter in the form of WIMPs: such detector has the highest discrimination of background events in favour of potential WIMP interactions, which are expected to produce low energy Ar recoils with typical energies of a few tens keV. The basic concept of the detector is the measurement of both the scintillation and the ionization produced by particle interactions inside a liquid argon sensitive volume. Two simultaneous criteria can be applied to select Ar recoils eventually produced by WIMPs: i) Prompt scintillation versus ionization. The prompt scintillation light produced by a particle interacting in the liquid argon phase is detected by PMs. The ionization electrons are extracted from the liquid into the gas and accelerated by an appropriate electric field to produce a proportional (high gain), secondary light pulse seen by the same PMs. The pulse ratio S2/S1 of secondary light S2 (from drift time-delayed ionization) over prompt scintillation light S1 is strongly dependent from columnar recombination of the ionising tracks: therefore nuclear recoils produce typical signals with pulse ratio S2/S1 about 60 times lower than electrons. ii) Pulse shape discrimination of primary scintillation: the primary light is emitted with two components with very large difference in decay times (fast 7 ns, and slow 1.8 őľs). The relative amount of the slow component strongly depends from the interacting particle, being around 0.7 for electrons and. 0.1 for heavy charged paricles. The WARP liquid argon detector under construction has a sensitive volume of 100 liters. The goal scintillation yield is of the order of 1 collected photoelectron per keV and the detection threshold for the WIMPs 30 keV. A detailed description of the 100 liters detector can be find in reference [1]. 1 INFN and Dept. of Physics University of Pavia: P. Benetti, E. Calligarich, M. Cambiaghi, C. De Vecchi, R. Dolfini, L. Grandi, A. Menegolli, C. Montanari, M. Prata, A. Rappoldi, G.L. Raselli, M. Roncadelli, M. Rossella, C. Rubbia (Spokesperson), C. Vignoli. INFN and Dept. of Physics University of Napoli "Federico II": F. Carbonara, A.G. Cocco, G. Fiorillo, G. Mangano, R. Santorelli. INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and University of L'Aquila: F. Cavanna, N. Ferrari, O. Palamara,. L. Pandola. Princeton University, Physics Department: F. Calaprice, C. Galbiati, Y. Zhao. Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow : A. Szelc. Figure 1. Energy spectrum observed with the WARP 2.3 liters prototype in the LNGS underground laboratory inside a 10 cm thick Pb shielding. The overlapped red histogram is the expected (montecarlo-simulated) background by interactions of environmental gamma rays. The residual events below 650 keV are produced by Ar and Kr contaminations inside the liquid Argon. Figure 2. Residual energy spectrum after subtraction of the estimated background from environmental gamma rays. The residual spectrum (upper blue curve) is perfectly fitted by the sum of the beta spectra of Ar (green curve, end-point 565 keV, rate 1.1 Bq/litre) and Kr (red curve, end-point 687 keV, rate 0.5 Bq/litre). The vertical scale is expressed in counts/sec/keV. 2. The WARP 2.3 liters prototype detector In order to perfect the detection method, a 2.3 liters prototype detector is in operation at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso since February 2005. The detector has been equipped, in subsequent phases, with 2'' and 3'' PMs made of low background materials for an onsite detailed study of the backgrounds. The structure is a down-scaled version of the 100 liters detector, with field-shaping electrodes and gas to liquid extraction and acceleration grids. The chamber is filled with ultra-purified argon in order to allow for long drift times of free electrons. Purity is maintained stable by means of continuous argon recirculation. 2.1.1. Study of the ő≤ and ő≥ detector backgrounds. The overall background of the 2.3 litres prototype installed underground inside a 10 cm thick Pb shielding has been carefully measured and identified. The total trigger rate above a threshold of 30 keV is about 5 Hz. From a detailed study of the energy spectrum shape (Figure 1) it is shown that about 2 Hz are produced by gamma ray interactions from radioactivity of materials surrounding the sensitive volume; the remaining 3 Hz are produced by the ő≤ decays of Kr and Ar dissolved in the liquid argon. In particular, the specific activity of Ar was found to be 1.1 ¬Ī 0.4 Bq/litre of liquid Argon, in very good agreement with ref. [2]. We notice that no particular care in the selection of materials was adopted, since in this test phase the background itself helps in the identification of the rejection power. Most of the backgrounds will be strongly reduced in the 100 litres setup. Figure 3. R-like events recorded with the 2.3 liters chamber during 13.4 days of live time in june 2005. The plot shows the primary signal energy (in keV) along the drift time, expressed in őľs. The fiducial volume is defined by drift times between 10 and 35 microseconds. Figure 4. Energy distribution of R-like events inside the cathode (upper plot), and inside the fiducial volume (lower plot). The red histogram in the lower plot is the result of a simulation of the expected signal from environmental neutrons in the underground area. 2.1.2. Analysis of Recoil-like events. Data recorded during 13.4 days of live time in a run done in june 2005 have been analyzed looking for recoil-like events by applying the two selection criteria described in section 1. About 6.5 millions events have been processed. The spatial and energy distribution of the 580 selected R-like events (see Figure 3) suggests the following origin for the signals: i) R-like events in the cathode region are mostly induced by decays of Rn daughters. Rn is introduced in the chamber during the filling together with the Ar: being electrically neutral it is uniformly distributed inside the chamber. Daughter nuclei, produced into an ionized state, are drifted to the cathode by the electric field, where they stick. Subsequent decays may end up: (a) with the heavy ion entering the cathode and the őĪ or ő≤ travelling in the LAr; (b) with the heavy ion travelling in the LAr and producing the observed R-like signal. The two peaks observed in the energy spectrum (Figure 4, upper plot) are coherently explained by the nuclear recoils from őĪ decays Po Pb (ER=110 keV) and Po Bi (ER=144 keV), assuming a light yield of 0.7 photoelectrons/keV. ii) R-like events inside the fiducial volume are induced by environmental neutrons. Both the event rate and the shape of the energy spectrum (Figure 4, lower plot) are compatible with the expected interactions induced by environmental neutrons inside the underground area (represented by the red histogram). The WARP 2.3 liters chamber in operation at LNGS proofs that the double discrimination technique is effective for separation of recoil events. The first results of the 2.3 liters test (with no neutron shielding) show that the observed background is understood, and that recoil-like signals are compatible with the expected neutron background in the underground area. References [1] WARP proposal, available online at http://warp.pv.infn.it/proposal.pdf [2] H.H. Loosli and H. Oeschger, Earth and Plan. Sci. Lett. 7 (1969) 6

    A machine-learning based bio-psycho-social model for the prediction of non-obstructive and obstructive coronary artery disease

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    Background: Mechanisms of myocardial ischemia in obstructive and non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), and the interplay between clinical, functional, biological and psycho-social features, are still far to be fully elucidated. Objectives: To develop a machine-learning (ML) model for the supervised prediction of obstructive versus non-obstructive CAD. Methods: From the EVA study, we analysed adults hospitalized for IHD undergoing conventional coronary angiography (CCA). Non-obstructive CAD was defined by a stenosis‚ÄČ&lt;‚ÄČ50% in one or more vessels. Baseline clinical and psycho-socio-cultural characteristics were used for computing a Rockwood and Mitnitski frailty index, and a gender score according to GENESIS-PRAXY methodology. Serum concentration of inflammatory cytokines was measured with a multiplex flow cytometry assay. Through an XGBoost classifier combined with an explainable artificial intelligence tool (SHAP), we identified the most influential features in discriminating obstructive versus non-obstructive CAD. Results: Among the overall EVA cohort (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ509), 311 individuals (mean age 67‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ11&nbsp;years, 38% females; 67% obstructive CAD) with complete data were analysed. The ML-based model (83% accuracy and 87% precision) showed that while obstructive CAD was associated with higher frailty index, older age and a cytokine signature characterized by IL-1ő≤, IL-12p70 and IL-33, non-obstructive CAD was associated with a higher gender score (i.e., social characteristics traditionally ascribed to women) and with a cytokine signature characterized by IL-18, IL-8, IL-23. Conclusions: Integrating clinical, biological, and psycho-social features, we have optimized a sex- and gender-unbiased model that discriminates obstructive and non-obstructive CAD. Further mechanistic studies will shed light on the biological plausibility of these associations. Clinical trial registration: NCT02737982

    COVID-19 Severity in Multiple Sclerosis: Putting Data Into Context

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    Background and objectives: It is unclear how multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the severity of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to compare COVID-19-related outcomes collected in an Italian cohort of patients with MS with the outcomes expected in the age- and sex-matched Italian population. Methods: Hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death after COVID-19 diagnosis of 1,362 patients with MS were compared with the age- and sex-matched Italian population in a retrospective observational case-cohort study with population-based control. The observed vs the expected events were compared in the whole MS cohort and in different subgroups (higher risk: Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score &gt; 3 or at least 1 comorbidity, lower risk: EDSS score ‚ȧ 3 and no comorbidities) by the Ōá2 test, and the risk excess was quantified by risk ratios (RRs). Results: The risk of severe events was about twice the risk in the age- and sex-matched Italian population: RR = 2.12 for hospitalization (p &lt; 0.001), RR = 2.19 for ICU admission (p &lt; 0.001), and RR = 2.43 for death (p &lt; 0.001). The excess of risk was confined to the higher-risk group (n = 553). In lower-risk patients (n = 809), the rate of events was close to that of the Italian age- and sex-matched population (RR = 1.12 for hospitalization, RR = 1.52 for ICU admission, and RR = 1.19 for death). In the lower-risk group, an increased hospitalization risk was detected in patients on anti-CD20 (RR = 3.03, p = 0.005), whereas a decrease was detected in patients on interferon (0 observed vs 4 expected events, p = 0.04). Discussion: Overall, the MS cohort had a risk of severe events that is twice the risk than the age- and sex-matched Italian population. This excess of risk is mainly explained by the EDSS score and comorbidities, whereas a residual increase of hospitalization risk was observed in patients on anti-CD20 therapies and a decrease in people on interferon
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